UGC NET syllabus designed for Ugc NET Commerce Exam comprises 10 units.


Unit 1 Business Environment and International Business
1 Concepts and elements of business environment: Economic environment- Economic systems, Economic policies(Monetary and fiscal policies); Political environmentRole of government in business; Legal environment- Consumer Protection Act, FEMA; Socio-cultural factors and their influence on business; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
2 Scope and importance of international business; Globalization and its drivers; Modes of entry into international business
3 Theories of international trade; Government intervention in international trade; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; India's foreign trade policy Foreign direct investment (FDI) and Foreign portfolio investment (FPI); Types of FDI, Costs and benefits of FDI to home and host countries; Trends in FDI; India's FDI policy
4 Balance of payments (BOP): Importance and components of BOP
5 Regional Economic Integration: Levels of Regional Economic Integration; Trade creation and diversion effects; Regional Trade Agreements: European Union (EU), ASEAN, SAARC, NAFTA
6 International Economic institutions: IMF, World Bank, UNCTAD
7 World Trade Organisation (WTO): Functions and objectives of WTO; Agriculture Agreement; GATS; TRIPS; TRIMS
Unit 2 Accounting and Auditing
1 Basic accounting principles; concepts and postulates
2 Partnership Accounts: Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution and Insolvency of partnership firms
3 Corporate Accounting: Issue, for feiture and reissue of shares; Liquidation of companies; Acquisition, merger, amalgamation and reconstruction of companies
4 Holding company accounts
5 Cost and Management Accounting: Marginal costing and Break-even analysis; Standard costing; Budgetary control; Process costing; Activity Based Costing (ABC); Costing for decision-making; Life cycle costing, Target costing, Kaizen costing and JIT
6 Financial Statements Analysis: Ratio analysis; Funds flow Analysis; Cash flow analysis
7 Human Resources Accounting; Inflation Accounting; Environmental Accounting
8 Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS
9 Auditing: Independent financial audit; Vouching; Verification ad valuation of assets and liabilities; Audit of financial statements and audit report; Cost audit
10 Recent Trends in Auditing: Management audit; Energy audit; Environment audit; Systems audit; Safety audit
Unit 3 Business Economics
1 Meaning and scope of business economics
2 Objectives of business firms
3 Demand analysis: Law of demand; Elasticity of demand and its measurement; Relationship between AR and MR
4 Consumer behavior: Utility analysis; Indifference curve analysis
5 Law of Variable Proportions: Law of Returns to Scale Theory of cost: Short-run and long-run cost curves
6 Price determination under different market forms: Perfect competition; Monopolistic competition; Oligopoly- Price leadership model; Monopoly; Price discrimination
7 Pricing strategies: Price skimming; Price penetration; Peak load pricing
Unit 4 Business Finance
1 Scope and sources of finance; Lease financing
2 Cost of capital and time value of money
3 Capital structure
4 Capital budgeting decisions: Conventional and scientific techniques of capital budgeting analysis
5 Working capital management; Dividend decision: Theories and policies
6 Risk and return analysis; Asset securitization
7 International monetary system
8 Foreign exchange market; Exchange rate risk and hedging techniques
9 International financial markets and instruments: Euro currency; GDRs; ADRs
10 International arbitrage; Multinational capital budgeting
Unit 5 Business Statistics and Research Methods
1 Measures of central tendency
2 Measures of dispersion
3 Measures of skewness
4 Correlation and regression of two variables
5 Probability: Approaches to probability; Bayes' theorem
6 Probability distributions: Binomial, poisson and normal distributions
7 Research: Concept and types; Research designs
8 Data: Collection and classification of data
9 Sampling and estimation: Concepts; Methods of sampling - probability and nonprobability methods; Sampling distribution; Central limit theorem; Standard error; Statistical estimation
10 Hypothesis testing: z-test; t-test; ANOVA; Chi-square test; Mann-Whitney test (Utest); Kruskal-Wallis test (H-test); Rank correlation test
11 Report writing
Unit 6 Business Management and Human Resource Management
1 Principles and functions of management
2 Organization structure: Formal and informal organizations; Span of control
3 Responsibility and authority: Delegation of authority and decentralization
4 Motivation and leadership: Concept and theories
5 Corporate governance and business ethics
6 Human resource management: Concept, role and functions of HRM; Human resource planning; Recruitment and selection; Training and development; Succession planning
7 Compensation management: Job evaluation; Incentives and fringe benefits
8 Performance appraisal including 360 degree performance appraisal
9 Collective bargaining and workers' participation in management
10 Personality: Perception; Attitudes; Emotions; Group dynamics; Power and politics; Conflict and negotiation; Stress management
11 Organizational Culture: Organizational development and organizational change
Unit 7 Banking and Financial Institutions
1 Overview of Indian financial system
2 Types of banks: Commercial banks; Regional Rural Banks (RRBs); Foreign banks; Cooperative banks
3 Reserve Bank of India: Functions; Role and monetary policy management
4 Banking sector reforms in India: Basel norms; Risk management; NPA management
5 Financial markets: Money market; Capital market; Government securities market
6 Financial Institutions: Development Finance Institutions (DFIs); Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs); Mutual Funds; Pension Funds
7 Financial Regulators in India
8 Financial sector reforms including financial inclusion
9 Digitisation of banking and other financial services: Internet banking; mobile banking; Digital payments systems
10 Insurance: Types of insurance- Life and Non-life insurance; Risk classification and management; Factors limiting the insurability of risk; Re-insurance; Regulatory framework of insurance- IRDA and its role
Unit 8 Marketing Management
1 Marketing: Concept and approaches; Marketing channels; Marketing mix; Strategic marketing planning; Market segmentation, targeting and positioning
2 Product decisions: Concept; Product line; Product mix decisions; Product life cycle; New product development
3 Pricing decisions: Factors affecting price determination; Pricing policies and strategies
4 Promotion decisions: Role of promotion in marketing; Promotion methods - Advertising; Personal selling; Publicity; Sales promotion tools and techniques; Promotion mix
5 Distribution decisions: Channels of distribution; Channel management
6 Consumer Behaviour; Consumer buying process; factors influencing consumer buying decisions
7 Service marketing
8 Trends in marketing: Social marketing; Online marketing; Green marketing; Direct marketing; Rural marketing; CRM
9 Logistics management
Unit 9 Legal Aspects of Business
1 Indian Contract Act, 1872: Elements of a valid contract; Capacity of parties; Free consent; Discharge of a contract; Breach of contract and remedies against breach; Quasi contracts;
2 Special contracts: Contracts of indemnity and guarantee; contracts of bailment and pledge; Contracts of agency
3 Sale of Goods Act, 1930: Sale and agreement to sell; Doctrine of Caveat Emptor; Rights of unpaid seller and rights of buyer
4 Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881: Types of negotiable instruments; Negotiation and assignment; Dishonour and discharge of negotiable instruments
5 The Companies Act, 2013: Nature and kinds of companies; Company formation; Management, meetings and winding up of a joint stock company
6 Limited Liability Partnership: Structure and procedure of formation of LLP in India
7 The Competition Act, 2002: Objectives and main provisions
8 The Information Technology Act, 2000: Objectives and main provisions; Cyber crimes and penalties
9 The RTI Act, 2005: Objectives and main provisions
10 Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) : Patents, trademarks and copyrights; Emerging issues in intellectual property
11 Goods and Services Tax (GST): Objectives and main provisions; Benefits of GST; Implementation mechanism; Working of dual GST
Unit 10 Income-tax and Corporate Tax Planning
1 Income-tax: Basic concepts; Residential status and tax incidence; Exempted incomes; Agricultural income; Computation of taxable income under various heads; Deductions from Gross total income; Assessment of Individuals; Clubbing of incomes
2 International Taxation: Double taxation and its avoidance mechanism; Transfer pricing
3 Corporate Tax Planning: Concepts and significance of corporate tax planning; Tax avoidance versus tax evasion; Techniques of corporate tax planning; Tax considerations in specific business situations: Make or buy decisions; Own or lease an asset; Retain; Renewal or replacement of asset; Shut down or continue operations
4 Deduction and collection of tax at source; Advance payment of tax; E-filing of income-tax returns