SET PHYSICAL SCIENCE SYLLABUS 2021


Initially, the physics paper pattern consisted of 3 papers (Paper I, II, and III), but as of after 2019, the updated exam pattern is of 2 papers (Paper I and II).

The paper II and III subjective syllabus content is merged to form paper II. Paper I is of general nature, intended to assess the teaching/research aptitude of the candidate.

It consists of 50 compulsory MCQs of 2 marks each. This paper is for 1 hour. Paper-II will contain 100 compulsory MCQs of two marks each from the Physical Science subject and the duration of this paper has been made as two hours (120 minutes).

PAPER I

Teaching Aptitude

Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.

Learner's characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners(Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.

Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material,Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.

Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs.Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam,Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).

Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.

Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.

Research Aptitude

Research: Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Post- positivistic approach to research.

Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative and Quantitative methods.

Steps of Research.

Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing.

Application of ICT in research.

Research ethics.

Comprehension

A passage of text be given. Questions be asked from the passage to be answered.

Communication

Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication.

Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication.

Barriers to effective communication.

Mass-Media and Society.

Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude

Types of reasoning.

Number series, Letter series, Codes and Relationships.

Mathematical Aptitude (Fraction, Time & Distance, Ratio, Proportion and Percentage, Profit and Loss, Interest and Discounting, Averages etc.).

Data Interpretation

Sources, acquisition and classification of Data.

Quantitative and Qualitative Data.

Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart and Line-chart) and mapping of Data.

Data Interpretation.

Data and Governance.

Logical Reasoning

Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition.

Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning.

Analogies.

Venn diagram: Simple and multiple use for establishing validity of arguments.

Indian Logic: Means of knowledge.

Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).

Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

ICT: General abbreviations and terminology.

Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing.

Digital initiatives in higher education.

ICT and Governance.

Higher Education System

Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India.

Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India.

Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programmes in India.

Professional, Technical and Skill Based education.

Value education and environmental education.

Policies, Governance, and Administration.

People, Development and Environment

Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals.

Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on environment.

Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions.

Impacts of pollutants on human health.

Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests.

Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies.

Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

PAPER II

1. Basic Mathematical Methods

Plotting of graph, curve fitting, data analysis, elementary probability theory. Calculus : vector algebra and vector calculus. Linear algebra, martices. Linear differential equations. Fourier : series, Fourier transforms-Elementary complex analysis.

2. Classical Dynamics

Basic principles of classical dynamics. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. Symmetries and conservation laws, Motion in the central field of force. Collision and scattering, Mechanics of system of particles. Rigid body dynamics. Noninertial frames and pseudoforces. Small oscillations and normal modes. Wave motion-wave equation, phase velocity, group velocity, dispersion. Special theory of relativity-Lorentz transformations, addition of velocities, mass-energy equivalence, energy-momentum four-vector

3. Electromagnetics

Electrostatics-Leplace and Poission equations, boundary value problems, multiple expansion, dielectrics. Magnetostatics - Ampere's theorem, Biot-Savart Law, electromagnetic induction. Maxwell's equation in free space and in linear isotropic media. Boundary conditions on the field at interfaces. Scalar and vector potentials, Gauge invariance. Electromagnetic waves-reflection and refraction, dispersion, Rectangular wave guides. Interference, coherence, visibility of fringes. Diffraction, Polarization, Electrodynamics motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Radiation from moving charges, radiation from a dipole.

4. Quantum Physics and Applications

Wave-particle duality. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. Schrodinger equation. Particle moving in a one-dimensional potential. Orbital angular momentum. Motion in a central potential symmetry conservation laws and degeneracy. Operator formalism of quantum mechanics. Angular momenta algebra, spin. Addition of angular momenta. Time-independent perturbation theory. Time-dependent purturbation theory-adiabatic approximation. Fermi's Golden Rule. Elementary theory of scattering in a central potential. Phase shifts, partial wave analysis. Born approximation. Schrodinger equation in a periodic potential, Bloch's theorem, Tunnelling through a potential barrier. Identical particles, spin statitics connection.

5. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics, laws of thremodynamics and their consequences. Thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell's relations. Chemical potential, phase equilibria. Phase space, Microstates and macrostates. Ensembles. Partition funcdtion, Free energy and connection with thermodynamic quantities. Classical and quantum statistics. Degenerate electron gas, Blackbody radiation and Planck's distribution law. Bose-Einstein condensation. Einestein and Debye models for lattice specific heat paramagnetism due to lacalized moments. Elementary ideas on phase transitions-Van der Walls fluid, Weiss molecular field theory of ferromagnetism. 6. Experimental Techniques, Measurement of fundamental physical constants, temperature, Pressure and humidity sensors, photon and particle detectors. Oscilloscopes, function generator, voltage and current sources, power supply, Measurement of high and low resistance (voltage and current). AC bridges for L and C Measurement of magnetic field. Principles and conceptual basis of : (i) Optical sources, interferometry for wavelength measurements, (ii) Production and measurement of low pressure (vacuum), (iii) Power and single crystal (Laue) Xray diffraction techniques, (iv) Measurements of signals, signal to noise ratio.

6. Electronics

Electronics Semiconductor discrete devices (characteristic curves and physics of p-n junction). Schottky, Tunnel and MOS diodes, Bipolar junction transistor, junction field effect, transistor (JFET) Metal-oxide-Semiconductor. Field effect transistor (MOSFET), unijunction transistor and sillicon controlled rectifier (SCR), Opto-electronic devices (Photo-diode, solar cell, LED, LCD and photo transistor), Diffusion of impurities in sillicon, growth of oxide.
Applications of semiconductor devices in linear and digital circuits-Zener regulated power supply, Transistor (bipolar, MOSFFT, JFET) as amplifier, coupling of amplifier stages (DC, RC and Transformer coupling), RC-coupled amplifier, dc and power amplifier Feedback in amplifiers and oscillators (phase swift, Hartley, Colpitts and crustal controlled) clipping and clamping circuits. Transistor as a switch OR, AND and NOT gates (TIL and CMOS gates). Multivibrators (using transistor) and sweep geneator (using transistors, UJT and SCR).
Linear integrated circuits-Operational amplifier and its applications-Inverting and noninverting amplifier, adder, integrator, differentiator, waveform geneator, comparator and Schmittrigger, Butterwoth active filter, phase shifter, Digital integrated circuits-NAND and NOR gates building block, X-OR gate, simple combinational circuits-Half and full address, Flip-Flops, shift registers, counters, A/D and D/A coverters, semiconductor memories (ROM, RAM, and EPROM, basic, architecture of 8 bit microprocessor (INTEL 8085).
Communication Electronics-Basic principle of amplitude frequency and phase modulation. Simple circuits for amplitude modulation and demodulation, digital (PCM) modulation and demodulation. Fundamentals of optical communication, Microwave Oscillators (reflex, klystron, megnetron and Gunn diode), Cavity resonaters. Standing wave detector.

7. Atomic and Molecular Physics

Atomic Physics-quantum states of an electron in an atom, Hydrogen atom spectrum, electron spin, Stern-Gerlach experiment, spin-orbit coupling, fine structure, spectroscopic terms and selection rules, hyperfine structure. Exchange symmetry of wave functions, Pauli exclusion priciples, periodic table, alkali-type spectra, LS and JJ coupling, Hund's rules and term reversal. Machanisms of line broadening. Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Stark effects. Inner-shell vacancy, X-rays and Auger transitions, Compton effect. Principles of resonance Spectroscopy (ESR and NMR) Molecular Physics-Covalent, ionic and Van der Waal's interaction, Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Heitler-London and molecular orbital theories of H2 . Rotation, rotation-vibration spectra, Raman Spectra, selection rules, nuclear spin and intensity alteration, isotope effects, electronics states of diatomic molecules, Franck-Condon principle. Laser-spontaneous and stimulated emission, optical pumping, population inversion, coherence (temporal and spatial), simple description of ammonia maser, CO2 and He-Ne lasers.

8. Condensed Matter Physics

Crystal classes and system, 2d and 3d lattices, bonding of common crystal structure; reciprocal lattice, diffraction and structure factor, elementary ideas about point defect and dislocations, short and long range order in liquids and solids, liquid crystals, quasicrystals and glasses. Lattice vibrations, phonons, specific heat of solids. Free electron theory. Fermi statistics, heat capacity and Pauli paramagnetic susceptibility. Electron motion in periodic potentials energy bands in metals, insulators and semiconductors, tight binding approximation, impurity levels in doped semiconductors. Dielectrics-Polarization mechanisms, Clausius-Mossotti equation, piezo, pyro and ferroelectricity. Dia and Para magnetism, exchange interactions, magnetic order, ferro, anti ferro and ferromagnetism. Superconductivity-basic phenomenology, Meissner effect, Type I and Type II super conductors, BCS pairing mechanisms, High Tc materials.

9. Nuclear and Particle Physics

Basic nuclear properties-size, shape, charge distribution; spin and parity, binding, empirical mass formula, liquid drop model, nuclear stability and radioactive decay. Nature of nuclear force, elements of deuteron problem and low energy N-N scattering Charge Independence + charge symmetry of nuclear forces. Evidence for nuclear shell structure. Single particle shell model-its validity and limitations. Interactions of charged particles and X-rays with matter, Basic principles of particle detectorsionization chamber, proportional counter and GM counters, solid state detectors-scintillation and semiconductor detectors. Radioactive decays- [ α β γ ] decays, their classifications and characteristics. Basic theoretical understanding. Nuclear reactions-Q values and kinematics of nuclear cross-sections, its energy and angular dependence, elementary ideas of reaction mechanisms, elementary ideas of fission and fusion. Particle Physics-Classificationof fundamental forces and elementary, particles, Isopin, strangeness, Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula. Quark model + SU (3) symmetry. C.T.P invariances in different interactions, weak interactions, parity-non conservation, K-meson complex and time reversal invariance, elementary ideas of geuge theory of strong and weak interactions.

Initially, the physics paper pattern consisted of 3 papers (Paper I, II, and III), but as of after 2019, the updated exam pattern is of 2 papers (Paper I and II).

The paper II and III subjective syllabus content is merged to form paper II. Paper I is of general nature, intended to assess the teaching/research aptitude of the candidate.

It consists of 50 compulsory MCQs of 2 marks each. This paper is for 1 hour. Paper-II will contain 100 compulsory MCQs of two marks each from the Physical Science subject and the duration of this paper has been made as two hours (120 minutes).

PAPER I : GENERAL APTITUDE

Teaching Aptitude

Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.

Learner's characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners(Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.

Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material,Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.

Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs.Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam,Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).

Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.

Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.

Research Aptitude

Research: Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Post- positivistic approach to research.

Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative and Quantitative methods.

Steps of Research.

Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing.

Application of ICT in research.

Research ethics.

Comprehension

A passage of text be given. Questions be asked from the passage to be answered.

Communication

Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication.

Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication.

Barriers to effective communication.

Mass-Media and Society.

Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude

Types of reasoning.

Number series, Letter series, Codes and Relationships.

Mathematical Aptitude (Fraction, Time & Distance, Ratio, Proportion and Percentage, Profit and Loss, Interest and Discounting, Averages etc.).

Data Interpretation

Sources, acquisition and classification of Data.

Quantitative and Qualitative Data.

Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart and Line-chart) and mapping of Data.

Data Interpretation.

Data and Governance.

Logical Reasoning

Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition.

Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning.

Analogies.

Venn diagram: Simple and multiple use for establishing validity of arguments.

Indian Logic: Means of knowledge.

Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).

Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

ICT: General abbreviations and terminology.

Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing.

Digital initiatives in higher education.

ICT and Governance.

Higher Education System

Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India.

Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India.

Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programmes in India.

Professional, Technical and Skill Based education.

Value education and environmental education.

Policies, Governance, and Administration.

People, Development and Environment

Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals.

Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on environment.

Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions.

Impacts of pollutants on human health.

Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests.

Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies.

Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

PART 'A' : CORE

Mathematical Methods of Physics

Dimensional analysis

Vector algebra and vector calculus

Linear algebra, matrices, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Linear ordinary differential equations of first & second order, Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre functions)

Fourier series, Fourier and Laplac transforms

Elements of complex analysis, analytic functions

Taylor & Laurent series

poles, residues and evaluation of integrals

Elementary probability theory, random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions

Central limit theorem

Classical Mechanics

Newton's laws

Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis

Central force motions.

Two body Collisions - scattering in laboratory and Centre of mass frames

Rigid body dynamicsmoment of inertia tensor

Non-inertial frames and pseudoforces

Variational principle

Generalized coordinates

Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism and equations of motion. Conservation laws and cyclic coordinates.

Periodic motion: small oscillations, normal modes

Special theory of relativityLorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics and mass-energy equivalence.

Electromagnetic Theory

Electrostatics: Gauss's law and its applications, Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value problems

Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere's theorem

Electromagnetic induction. Maxwell's

equations in free space and linear isotropic media

boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces

Scalar and vector potentials, gauge invariance

Electromagnetic waves in free space

Dielectrics and conductors

Reflection and refraction, polarization, Fresnel's law, interference, coherence, and diffraction

Dynamics of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields

Quantum Mechanics

Wave-particle duality

Schrödinger equation (time-dependent and time-independent)

Eigenvalue problems (particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, etc.)

Tunneling through a barrier

Wave-function in coordinate and momentum representations

Commutators and Heisenberg uncertainty principle

Dirac notation for state vectors

Motion in a central potential: orbital angular momentum, angular momentum algebra, spin, addition of angular momenta

Hydrogen atom. Stern-Gerlach experiment

Timeindependent perturbation theory and applications

Variational method. Time dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule, selection rules

Identical particles, Pauli exclusion principle, spin-statistics connection

Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics

Laws of thermodynamics and their consequences

Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations, chemical potential, phase equilibria

Phase space, micro- and macro-states

Micro-canonical, canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions

Free energy and its connection with thermodynamic quantities

Classical and quantum statistics

Ideal Bose and Fermi gases

Principle of detailed balance

Blackbody radiation and Planck's distribution law

Electronics and Experimental Methods

Semiconductor devices (diodes, junctions, transistors, field effect devices, homo- and hetero-junction devices), device structure, device characteristics, frequency dependence and applications

Opto-electronic devices (solar cells, photo-detectors, LEDs)

Operational amplifiers and their applications

Digital techniques and applications (registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits)

A/D and D/A converters

Microprocessor and microcontroller basics

Data interpretation and analysis

Precision and accuracy

Error analysis, propagation of errors

Leastsquares fitting

PART 'B' : ADVANCED

Mathematical Methods of Physics

Green's function

Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions).

Elements of computational techniques: root of functions, interpolation, extrapolation,integration by trapezoid and Simpson's rule, Solution of first order differential equation using RungeKutta method

Finite difference methods. Tensors. Introductory group theory: SU(2), O(3).

Classical Mechanics

Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis.

Poisson brackets and canonical transformations.

Symmetry, invariance and Noether's theorem.

Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

Electromagnetic Theory

Dispersion relations in plasma.

Lorentz invariance of Maxwell's equation.

Transmission lines and wave guides.

Radiation- from moving charges and dipoles and retarded potentials.

Quantum Mechanics

Spin-orbit coupling, fine structure

WKB approximation

Elementary theory of scattering: phase shifts, partial waves, Born approximation.

Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations.

Semi-classical theory of radiation.

Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics

First- and second-order phase transitions.

Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism

Ising model

Bose-Einstein condensation

Diffusion equation. Random walk and Brownian motion.

Introduction to nonequilibrium processes.

Electronics and Experimental Methods

Linear and nonlinear curve fitting, chi-square test

Transducers (temperature, pressure/vacuum, magnetic fields, vibration, optical, and particle detectors)

Measurement and control

Signal conditioning and recovery

Impedance matching, amplification (Op-amp based, instrumentation amp, feedback), filtering and noise reduction, shielding and grounding

Fourier transforms, lock-in detector, box-car integrator, modulation techniques.

High frequency devices (including generators and detectors).

Atomic & Molecular Physics

Quantum states of an electron in an atom

Electron spin

Spectrum of helium and alkali atom

Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen atom, hyperfine structure and isotopic shift, width of spectrum lines, LS & JJ couplings

Zeeman, Paschen-Bach & Stark effects

Electron spin resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance, chemical shift

Frank-Condon principle

Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

Electronic, rotational, vibrational and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules

Lasers: spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients

Optical pumping, population inversion, rate equation

Modes of resonators and coherence length.

Condensed Matter Physics

Bravais lattices

Reciprocal lattice

Diffraction and the structure factor

onding of solids. Elastic properties, phonons, lattice specific heat

Free electron theory and electronic specific heat

Response and relaxation phenomena

Drude model of electrical and thermal conductivity

Hall effect and thermoelectric power

Electron motion in a periodic potential, band theory of solids: metals, insulators and semiconductors

Superconductivity: type-I and type-II superconductors

Josephson junctions.

Superfluidity

Defects and dislocations

Nuclear and Particle Physics

Basic nuclear properties: size, shape and charge distribution, spin and parity

Binding energy, semiempirical mass formula, liquid drop model

Nature of the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon potential, charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces

Deuteron problem

vidence of shell structure, single-particle shell model, its validity and limitations

Rotational spectra

Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules

Fission and fusion. Nuclear reactions,reaction mechanism, compound nuclei and direct reactions.

Classification of fundamental forces

Elementary particles and their quantum numbers (charge, spin, parity, isospin, strangeness, etc.)

Gellmann-Nishijima formula. Quark model, baryons and mesons

C, P, and T invariance. Application of symmetry arguments to particle reactions

Parity non-conservation in weak interaction. Relativistic kinematics.

Initially, the physics paper pattern consisted of 3 papers (Paper I, II, and III), but as of after 2019, the updated exam pattern is of 2 papers (Paper I and II).

The paper II and III subjective syllabus content is merged to form paper II. Paper I is of general nature, intended to assess the teaching/research aptitude of the candidate.

It consists of 50 compulsory MCQs of 2 marks each. This paper is for 1 hour. Paper-II will contain 100 compulsory MCQs of two marks each from the Physical Science subject and the duration of this paper has been made as two hours (120 minutes).

PAPER I : GENERAL APTITUDE

Teaching Aptitude

Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.

Learner's characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners(Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.

Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material,Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.

Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs.Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam,Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).

Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.

Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.

Research Aptitude

Research: Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Post- positivistic approach to research.

Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative and Quantitative methods.

Steps of Research.

Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing.

Application of ICT in research.

Research ethics.

Comprehension

A passage of text be given. Questions be asked from the passage to be answered.

Communication

Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication.

Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication.

Barriers to effective communication.

Mass-Media and Society.

Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude

Types of reasoning.

Number series, Letter series, Codes and Relationships.

Mathematical Aptitude (Fraction, Time & Distance, Ratio, Proportion and Percentage, Profit and Loss, Interest and Discounting, Averages etc.).

Data Interpretation

Sources, acquisition and classification of Data.

Quantitative and Qualitative Data.

Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart and Line-chart) and mapping of Data.

Data Interpretation.

Data and Governance.

Logical Reasoning

Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition.

Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning.

Analogies.

Venn diagram: Simple and multiple use for establishing validity of arguments.

Indian Logic: Means of knowledge.

Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).

Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

ICT: General abbreviations and terminology.

Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing.

Digital initiatives in higher education.

ICT and Governance.

Higher Education System

Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India.

Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India.

Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programmes in India.

Professional, Technical and Skill Based education.

Value education and environmental education.

Policies, Governance, and Administration.

People, Development and Environment

Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals.

Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on environment.

Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions.

Impacts of pollutants on human health.

Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests.

Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies.

Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

PART 'A' : CORE

Mathematical Methods of Physics

Dimensional analysis

Vector algebra and vector calculus

Linear algebra, matrices, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Linear ordinary differential equations of first & second order, Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre functions)

Fourier series, Fourier and Laplac transforms

Elements of complex analysis, analytic functions

Taylor & Laurent series

poles, residues and evaluation of integrals

Elementary probability theory, random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions

Central limit theorem

Classical Mechanics

Newton's laws

Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis

Central force motions.

Two body Collisions - scattering in laboratory and Centre of mass frames

Rigid body dynamicsmoment of inertia tensor

Non-inertial frames and pseudoforces

Variational principle

Generalized coordinates

Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism and equations of motion. Conservation laws and cyclic coordinates.

Periodic motion: small oscillations, normal modes

Special theory of relativityLorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics and mass-energy equivalence.

Electromagnetic Theory

Electrostatics: Gauss's law and its applications, Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value problems

Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere's theorem

Electromagnetic induction. Maxwell's

equations in free space and linear isotropic media

boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces

Scalar and vector potentials, gauge invariance

Electromagnetic waves in free space

Dielectrics and conductors

Reflection and refraction, polarization, Fresnel's law, interference, coherence, and diffraction

Dynamics of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields

Quantum Mechanics

Wave-particle duality

Schrödinger equation (time-dependent and time-independent)

Eigenvalue problems (particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, etc.)

Tunneling through a barrier

Wave-function in coordinate and momentum representations

Commutators and Heisenberg uncertainty principle

Dirac notation for state vectors

Motion in a central potential: orbital angular momentum, angular momentum algebra, spin, addition of angular momenta

Hydrogen atom. Stern-Gerlach experiment

Timeindependent perturbation theory and applications

Variational method. Time dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule, selection rules

Identical particles, Pauli exclusion principle, spin-statistics connection

Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics

Laws of thermodynamics and their consequences

Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations, chemical potential, phase equilibria

Phase space, micro- and macro-states

Micro-canonical, canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions

Free energy and its connection with thermodynamic quantities

Classical and quantum statistics

Ideal Bose and Fermi gases

Principle of detailed balance

Blackbody radiation and Planck's distribution law

Electronics and Experimental Methods

Semiconductor devices (diodes, junctions, transistors, field effect devices, homo- and hetero-junction devices), device structure, device characteristics, frequency dependence and applications

Opto-electronic devices (solar cells, photo-detectors, LEDs)

Operational amplifiers and their applications

Digital techniques and applications (registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits)

A/D and D/A converters

Microprocessor and microcontroller basics

Data interpretation and analysis

Precision and accuracy

Error analysis, propagation of errors

Leastsquares fitting

PART 'B' : ADVANCED

Mathematical Methods of Physics

Green's function

Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions).

Elements of computational techniques: root of functions, interpolation, extrapolation,integration by trapezoid and Simpson's rule, Solution of first order differential equation using RungeKutta method

Finite difference methods. Tensors. Introductory group theory: SU(2), O(3).

Classical Mechanics

Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis.

Poisson brackets and canonical transformations.

Symmetry, invariance and Noether's theorem.

Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

Electromagnetic Theory

Dispersion relations in plasma.

Lorentz invariance of Maxwell's equation.

Transmission lines and wave guides.

Radiation- from moving charges and dipoles and retarded potentials.

Quantum Mechanics

Spin-orbit coupling, fine structure

WKB approximation

Elementary theory of scattering: phase shifts, partial waves, Born approximation.

Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations.

Semi-classical theory of radiation.

Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics

First- and second-order phase transitions.

Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism

Ising model

Bose-Einstein condensation

Diffusion equation. Random walk and Brownian motion.

Introduction to nonequilibrium processes.

Electronics and Experimental Methods

Linear and nonlinear curve fitting, chi-square test

Transducers (temperature, pressure/vacuum, magnetic fields, vibration, optical, and particle detectors)

Measurement and control

Signal conditioning and recovery

Impedance matching, amplification (Op-amp based, instrumentation amp, feedback), filtering and noise reduction, shielding and grounding

Fourier transforms, lock-in detector, box-car integrator, modulation techniques.

High frequency devices (including generators and detectors).

Atomic & Molecular Physics

Quantum states of an electron in an atom

Electron spin

Spectrum of helium and alkali atom

Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen atom, hyperfine structure and isotopic shift, width of spectrum lines, LS & JJ couplings

Zeeman, Paschen-Bach & Stark effects

Electron spin resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance, chemical shift

Frank-Condon principle

Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

Electronic, rotational, vibrational and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules

Lasers: spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients

Optical pumping, population inversion, rate equation

Modes of resonators and coherence length.

Condensed Matter Physics

Bravais lattices

Reciprocal lattice

Diffraction and the structure factor

onding of solids. Elastic properties, phonons, lattice specific heat

Free electron theory and electronic specific heat

Response and relaxation phenomena

Drude model of electrical and thermal conductivity

Hall effect and thermoelectric power

Electron motion in a periodic potential, band theory of solids: metals, insulators and semiconductors

Superconductivity: type-I and type-II superconductors

Josephson junctions.

Superfluidity

Defects and dislocations

Nuclear and Particle Physics

Basic nuclear properties: size, shape and charge distribution, spin and parity

Binding energy, semiempirical mass formula, liquid drop model

Nature of the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon potential, charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces

Deuteron problem

vidence of shell structure, single-particle shell model, its validity and limitations

Rotational spectra

Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules

Fission and fusion. Nuclear reactions,reaction mechanism, compound nuclei and direct reactions.

Classification of fundamental forces

Elementary particles and their quantum numbers (charge, spin, parity, isospin, strangeness, etc.)

Gellmann-Nishijima formula. Quark model, baryons and mesons

C, P, and T invariance. Application of symmetry arguments to particle reactions

Parity non-conservation in weak interaction. Relativistic kinematics.

PAPER II

1. Basic Mathematical Methods:

Calculus: Vector algebra and vector calculus, Linear algebra, matrices, Linear differential equations, Fourier-series, Elementary complex analysis.

2. Classical Dynamics :

Basic principles of classical dynamics, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, Symmetries and conservation laws, Motion in the central field of force, Collisions and scattering, Mechanics of a system of particles, Small oscillations and normal modes, Wave motion-wave equation, phase velocity, group velocity, dispersion. Special theory of relativity-Lorentz transformations, addition of velocities, mass-energy equivalance.

3. Electromagnetics :

Electrostatics-Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value problems, Magnetostatics-Ampere's theorem, Blot-Sayart law, electromagnetic induction, Maxwell's equations in free space and in linear isotropic media. Boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces, Scaler and vector potentials, Gauge invarience, Electromagnetic waves-reflection and refraction, dispersion, interferance, coherence, diffraction, polarization, Electrodynamics of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Radiation from moving charges, radiation from a dipole, Retarded potential.

4. Quantum Physics and Applications:

Wave-particle duality, Heisenberg's uncertainity Principle. The Schrodinger equation particle in a box., Harmonic Oscillator, Tunnelling through a barrier, motion in a central potential,Orbital angular momentum. Angular momentum algebra, spin. Addition of angular momenta. Time independent perturbation theory. Ferml's Golden Rule. Elementary theory of scattering in a central potential, Phase shifts, partial wave analysis, Borm approximation, identical particles, spin-statistics connection.

5. Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics :

Laws of thermodynamics and their consequences. Thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell's relations. Chemical potential, phase equilibria. Phase space, microstates and microststes. Partition function, Free Energy and connection with thermodynamic quantities. Classical and quantum statistics, Degenerate electron gas. Blackbody radiation and Planck's distribution law, Boss-Einstein condensation. Einstein and Debye models for latticce specific heat.

6. Experimental Design :

Measurement of fundamental constants; e.h.c. Measurement of High & Low Resistences, L and C. Detection of X-rays, Gamma rays, charged particles, neutrons etc. Ionization chamber, proportional counter, GM counter, Scintillation detectors, Solid State detectors, Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy, Measurement of Magnetic field, Hall effect, magnetoresistance. X-ray and neutron Diffrection, Vacuum Techniques; basic idea of conductance, pumping speed etc. Pumps; Mechanical Pump, Diffusion pump; Gauges; Thermocouple, Penning, Pirani, Hot Cathode. Low Temperature; Cooling a sample over a range upto 4K and measurement of temperature. Measurement of Energy and Time using electronic signals from the detectors and associated instrumentation; Signal processing, A/D conversion & multichannel analyzers, Time-of-flight technique; Coincidence measurements; true to chance ratio, correlation studies. Error Analysis and Hypothesis testing Propagation of errors, Plotting of Graph, Distributions, Least aquares fitting, criteria for goodness of fite-chi square test.

7. Electronics :

Physics of p-n junction, Diode as a circuit element; clipping, clamping; Rectification, Zener regulated power supply : Transistor as a circuit element : CC, Cb, and CE configuration, 'Transistor as a switch, OR, AND, NOT gates. Feed back in Amplifiers. Operational amplifier and its applications : inverting , non-inverting amplifier, adder, integrator, differentiator, wave form generator, comparator, & Schmidt trigger. Digital integrated circuits-NAND & NOR gates as building blocks, X-OR Gate, simple combinational circuits, Half & Full adder, Flip-flop, shift register, counters. Basic principles of A/D & D/ A converters; Simple applications of A/D & D/A converters.

8. Atomic & Molecular Physics :

Quantum states of an electron in an atom. Hydrogen atom spectrum. Electron spin. Stern-Gerlach experiment. Spin-orbit coupling, fine structure, relativistic correction, spectro-scopic terms and selection rules, hyperfine structure. Exchange symmetry of wave functions. Pauli's exclusion principle, periodic table alkali-type spectra, LS & JJ coupling, Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Stark effects. X-Rays and Auger transitions, Compton effect Principles of ESR, NMR Molecular Physics : Convalent, Ionic and Vander Waal's interaction. Rotation/Vibration spectra. Raman Spectra, selection rules, nuclear spin and intensity alternation, isotope effects, electronic states of diatomic molecules, Frank-Condom principle. Lasersspontaneous and stimulated emission, optical pumping, population inversion, coherence (temporal and spatial) simple description of Ammonia maser, CO2 and He-Ne Lasers.

9. Condensed Matter Physics :

Crystal classes and systems, 2d & 2d lattices, Bonding of common crystal structures, reciprocal lattice, diffraction and structure factor, elementary ideas about point defects and dislocations. Latics vibrations, Phonons, specific heat of solids, free electron theory-Fermi statistics; heat capacity. Electron motion in periodic potential, energy bands in metals, insulators and semi-conductors; tight binding approximation; Impurity levels in doped semi-conductors. Electronic transport from classical kinetic theory, electrical and thermal conductivity. Half effect and thermo-electric power transport in semi-conductors. Di-electrics-Polarization mechnisms, Clausius-Mossotti equation, Piezo, Pyro and ferro electricity. Dia and Para megnetism; exchange interactions, magnetic order, ferro, anti-ferro and ferrimagnetism. Super conductivity-basic phenomenology; Meissner effect, Type-1 & Type-2 Super conductors, BCS Pairing mechanism.

10. Nuclear and Particle Physics :

Basic nuclear properties-size, shape, charge distribution, spin & parity, binding, empirical mass formula, liquid drop model. Nature of nuclear force, elements of two-body problem, charge independence and charge symmetry of nuclear forces. Evidence for nuclear shell structure. Single particle shell model-its validity and limitations, collective model. Interactions of charged particles and e.m. rays with matter. Basic principles of particle detectors-ionization chamber; gas proportional counter and GM counter, scintillation and semiconductor detectors. Radio-active decays (a By), basic theoretical understanding Nuclear reactions, elementary ideas of reaction mechanisms, compound nucleus and direct reactions, elementary ideas of fission and fusion. Particle Physics : Symmetrice and conservation laws, classification of fundamental forces and elementary particles, iso-spin, strangeness, Gell-Mann Nishijima formula, Quark model. C.P.T. invariance in different interactions, partynonconservation in weak interaction.

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