SET CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS : MAHARASHTRA SET, TAMILNADU SET


Initially, the paper pattern consisted of 3 papers (Paper I, II, and III), but as of after 2019, the updated exam pattern is of 2 papers (Paper I and II). The paper II and III subjective syllabus content is merged to form paper II. Paper I is of general nature, intended to assess the teaching/research aptitude of the candidate. It consists of 50 compulsory MCQs of 2 marks each. This paper is for 1 hour. Paper-II will contain 100 compulsory MCQs of two marks each from the chemistry subject and the duration of this paper has been made as two hours (120 minutes).

PAPER I

Teaching Aptitude

Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.

Learner's characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners(Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.

Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material,Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.

Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs.Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam,Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).

Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.

Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.

Research Aptitude

Research: Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Post- positivistic approach to research.

Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative and Quantitative methods.

Steps of Research.

Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing.

Application of ICT in research.

Research ethics.

Comprehension

A passage of text be given. Questions be asked from the passage to be answered.

Communication

Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication.

Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication.

Barriers to effective communication.

Mass-Media and Society.

Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude

Types of reasoning.

Number series, Letter series, Codes and Relationships.

Mathematical Aptitude (Fraction, Time & Distance, Ratio, Proportion and Percentage, Profit and Loss, Interest and Discounting, Averages etc.).

Data Interpretation

Sources, acquisition and classification of Data.

Quantitative and Qualitative Data.

Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart and Line-chart) and mapping of Data.

Data Interpretation.

Data and Governance.

Logical Reasoning

Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition.

Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning.

Analogies.

Venn diagram: Simple and multiple use for establishing validity of arguments.

Indian Logic: Means of knowledge.

Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).

Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

ICT: General abbreviations and terminology.

Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing.

Digital initiatives in higher education.

ICT and Governance.

Higher Education System

Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India.

Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India.

Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programmes in India.

Professional, Technical and Skill Based education.

Value education and environmental education.

Policies, Governance, and Administration.

People, Development and Environment

Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals.

Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on environment.

Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions.

Impacts of pollutants on human health.

Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests.

Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies.

Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

PAPER II

Structure and Bonding

Atomic orbitals, electronic configuration of atoms (L-S coupling) and the periodic properties of elements, ionic radii, ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, concept of hybridization

Molecular orbitals and electronic configuration of homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules

Shapes of polyatomic molecules

VSEPR theory

Symmetry elements and point groups for simple molecules

Bond lengths, bond angles, bond order and bond energies

Resonance

Types of chemical bond (weak and strong)

Intermolecular forces

Types of solids, lattice energy.

Acids and Bases

Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases

pH and pKa, acid-base concept in non-aqueous media, SHAB concept, Buffer solutions.

Redox Reactions

Oxidation numbers, Redox potentials, Electrochemical series, Redox indicators.

Introductory Energetics and Dynamics of Chemical Reactions

Law of conservation of energy

Energy and enthalpy of reactions

Entropy, free energy, relationship between free energy change and equilibrium

Rates of chemical reactions (first-and second-order reactions)

Arrhenius equation and Concept of transition state

Mechanisms, including SN1 and SN2 reactions, electron transfer reactions, catalysis Colligative properties of solutions.

Aspects of s, p, d, f Block Elements

General characteristics of each block

Chemical principles involved in extraction and purification of common metals

Coordination chemistry, Structural aspects, isomerism, octahedral and tetrahedral crystal-field spliting of d-orbitals

CFSE, magnetism and colour of transition metal ions

Sandwich compounds metal carbonyls and metal clusters

Rare gas compounds, non-stoichiometric oxides

Radioactivity and transmutation of elements.

IUPAC Nomenclature of Simple Organic and Inorganic Compounds.

Concept of Chirality

Recognition of symmetry elements and chiral structures, R-S nomenclature, diastereoisomerism in acyclic and cyclic-systems, E-Z isomerism

Conformational analysis of simple cyclic (chair and boat cyclohexanes) and acyclic systems, Interconverison of Fischer, Newman and Sawhorse projections.

Common Organic Reactions and Mechanisms

Reactive intermediates

Formation and stability of carbonium ions, carbenes, nitrenes, radicals and arynes

Nucleophilic, electrophilic, radical substitution, addition and elimination reactions

Familiar name reactions : Aldol, Perkin, Stobbe, Dieckmann condensations ; Hofmann, Schmidt, Lossen, Curtius, Beckmann and Fries rearrangements, Reimer-Tiemann, Reformatsky and Grignard reactions

Diels-Alder reaction, Claisen rearrangement, Friedel-Crafts reaction, Witting reaction

Routine functional group transformations and inter-convertions of simple functionalities

Hydroboration, Oppenauer oxidation, Clemmensen, Wolf-Kishner, Meerwein-Ponndorf Verley and Birch reductions.

Elementary principles and applications of electronic, vibrational, NMR, EPR, Mossbauer and mass spectral techniques to simple structural problems.

Data Analysis

Types of erros, propogation of errors, accuracy and precision, least-square analysis, average standard diviation.

PAPER III

1.

Quantum Chemistry, Planck’s quantum theory, wave-particle duality, Uncertainty Principle, operators and commutation relations, postulates of quantum mechanics and Schrodinger equation, free particle, pastick in a box, degeneracy, harmonic oscillator, rigid rotator and the hydrogen atom

Angular momentum including spin coupling of angular momenta including spin-orbit coupling.

The variation method and pertubation theory

Application to the helium, atom, antisymmetry and Exclusion Principle, Slater determinantal wave functions

Term symobols and spectroscopic states.

Born-Oppenheimer approximation, Hydrogen molecule ion

LCAO-MO and VB treatments of the hydrogen molecule, electron density, forces and their role in chemical binding

Hybridisation and valence MO, of H2O, NH3 and CH4

Huckel pi-electron theory and its applications to ethylene, butadiene and benzene, idea of self-consistent fields.

Group theoretical representations and quantum mechanics

Vanishing of intergrals, spectroscopic selection rules for vibrational, electronic, vibronic and Raman spectroscopy

treatment of large molecules with symmetry.

Spectroscopy

Theoretical treatment of rotational, vibrational and electronic spectroscopy

Principles of magnetic resonance, Mossbauer and Photoelectron spectroscopy.

Thermodynamics

First law of thermodynamics, relation between Cp and Cv ; enthalpies of physical and chemical changes, temperature depednence of enthaplies

Second law of thermodynamics, entropy, Gibs-Helmholtz equation

Third law of thermodynamics and calculation of entropy.

Chemical Equilibrium

Free energy and entropy of mixing, partial molar quantities, Gibbs-Duhem equation

Equilibrium constant, temperature dependence of equilibrium constant, phase diagram of one and two-component systems, phase rule.

Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions

Excess functions, activities, concept of hydration number, activities in electrolytic solutions, mean ionic activity coefficient

Debye-Huckel treatment of dilute electrolyte solutions.

Equilibria in Electrochemical Cells

Cell reactions

Nernst equation

application of cell EMF measurements.

Surface Phenomena

Surface tension, adsorption on solids, electrical phenomena at interfaces including electrokinetic micelles and reverse micelles; solutions

Applications of photoelectron spectroscopy, ESCA and Auger spectroscopy to the study of surfaces.

Statistical Thermodynamic probability and entropy

Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of velocities, average, most probable and root-mean-square velocities

Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics

Partition function, rotational, translational, vibrational and electronic partition functions for diatomic molecules, calculations of thermodynamic functions and equilibrium constants

Theories of specific heat for solids.

Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics

Postulates and methodologies

linear laws

Gibbs equation

Onsager reciprocal theory.

Reaction Kinetics

Methods of determining rate laws, Mechanisms of photo-chemical, chain and oscillatory reactions

Collision theory of reaction rates, steric factor, treatment of unimolecular reactions

Theory of absolute reaction rates, comparison of result with Eyring and Arrhenius equations, ionic reactions, salt effect

Homogeneous catalysis and Michaelis-Menten Kinetics; heterogeneous catalysis.

Fast Reactions

Study of kinetics by stop-flow technique

relaxation method

flash photolysis and magnetic resonance method.

Macromolecules

Number-average and weight-average molecular weights

Determination of molecular weights

Kinetics of polymerisation

Stereochemistry and mechanism of polymerisation.

Solids

Dislocations in solids, Schottky and Frenkel defects

Electrical properties

Insulators and semiconductors, band theory of solids, solid-state reactions.

Nuclear Chemistry

Radioactive decay and equilibrium

Nuclear reactions, Q value, cross- sections, types of reactions

Chemical effects of nuclear transformations, fission and fusion, fission products and fission yields

Radioactive techniques, tracer techniques, neutron activation analysis, counting techniques such as G.M., ionization and proportional counters.

Chemistry of Non-transition Elements

General discussion on the properties of the non-transition elements, special features of individual elements, synthesis, properties and structure of their halides and oxides, polymorphism of carbon, phosphorus and sulphur

Synthesis, properties and structure of boranes, carboranes, borazines, silicates, carbides, silicones, phosphazenes, sulphur, oxyacids of nitrogen, phophorus, sulphur and halogens

Interhalogens, pseudohalides and noble gas compounds.

Chemistry of Transition Elements

Coordination chemistry of transition metalions

Stability constants of complexes and their determination, stabilization of unusual oxidation states

Stereochemistry of coordination compounds

Ligand field theory, spliting of d-orbitals in low symmetry environments

Jahn-Teller effect, interpretation of electronic spectra including charge transfer spectra, spectrochemical series, nephelauxetic series

Dia-para-ferro and antiferromagentism, quenching of orbital angular moments, spin orbit coupling

Inorganic reaction mechanisms, substitution reactions, trans-effect and electron transfer reactions, photochemical reactions of chromium and ruthenium complexes

Fluxional molecules

Iso and heteropolyacids, metal clusters

Spin crossover in coordination compounds.

Chemistry of Lanthanides and Acitindes

Spectral and magnetic properties

use of lanthanide compounds as shift reagents.

Organometallic Chemistry of Transition Elements

Synthesis, structure and bonding

organometallic reagents in organic synthesis and in homogeneous catalytic reactions (hydrogenation, hydroformylationn, isomerisation and polymerisation)

pi-metal complexes

activation of small molecules by coordination.

Topics in Analytical Chemistry

Adsorption, partition, exclusion, electrochromatography

Solvent extraction and ion exchange methods

Application of atomic and molecular absorption and emmision spectroscopy in quantitative analysis

Light scattering techniques including nephelometry and Raman spec roscopy

Electroanalytical techniques, voltametry, cyclic voltametry, polarography, amperometry, coulometry and conductometry

Ion-selective electrodes

Anodic stripping voltametry, TGA, DTA, DSC and on-line analysers.

Bioiorganic Chemistry

Molecular mechanism of ion transport across membranes, ionophores

Photosynthesis-PS-I, PS-II, nitrogen fixation, oxygen uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferrodoxions.

Aromaticity

Huckel’s rule and concept of aromaticity : annulenes and heteroannulenes, fullerenes.

Stereochemistry and Conformational Analysis

Newer methods of assymetric synthesis (including enzymatic and catalytic nexus), enantio-and diastereo selective synthesis

Effects of conformation on reactivity in acylic compounds and cyclohexanes.

Selective Organic Name Reactions

Favorskii reaction

Strok enamine reaction

Michael addition

Mannich reaction

Sharpless asymmetric expoxidation

ene reaction

Barton reaction

Hofmann Loffler-Freytag reaction

Shapiro reaction

Baeyer-Villiger reaction

Chichibabin reaction.

Mechanisms of Organic Reactions

Labelling and kinetic isotope effects

Hamett equation

σ–δ (sigma-rho) relationship

non-classical carbonium ions

neighbouring group participation.

Pericyclic Reactions

Selection rules and stereochemistry of electrocyclic reactions

cycloaddition and sigmatrophic shifts

Sommelet-Hauser

Cope and Claisen rearrangements.

Heterocycles

Synthesis and reactivity of furan, thiophene, pyrrole, pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline and indole

Skraup synthesis, Fischer indole synthesis.

Reagents in Organic Synthesis

Use of following reagents in organic synthesis and fuctinal group transformations-Complex metal hydride

Gilman's reagent, lithium, dimethylcuprate, lithim, disopropylamide (LDA) dicyclohexylcarbodimide, 1, 3-dithiane (reactivity umpolung)

Trimethy, silyl iodide, tri-n-butyltin hydride, Woodward and Prevost hydroxylation, osmium tetraoxide, DDQ, selenium dioxide, phase transfer catalysts, crown ethers and Merrifield resin

Peterson’s synthesis, Wilkinson’s catalyst, Baker’s yeast.

Chemistry of Natural Products

Familiarity with methods of structure elucidation and biosynthesis of alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, carbohydrates and proteins, Conformations of proteins and nucleic acids.

Bioorganic Chemistry

Elementary structure and function of biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids, Genetic code, Mechanism of enzyme action.

Photochemistry

Principles of energy transfer

cis-trans isomerization

Paterno-Buchi reaction

Norrish Type I and II reactions

photoreduction of ketones

di-pi-methane rearrangement

photochemistry of arenes.

Spectroscopy

Combined applications of mass, UV-VIS, IR and NMR spectroscopy for structural elucidation of compounds.

Candidates should have to attend Both Paper I and Paper II. All questions are compulsory. Paper I is common for all subjects. Which contains language both English and Tamil. Questions in paper II covers the entire subject. The syllabus is equivalent to UCG NET.

PAPER I

Teaching Aptitude

Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.

Learner's characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners(Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.

Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material,Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.

Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs.Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam,Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).

Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.

Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.

Research Aptitude

Research: Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Post- positivistic approach to research.

Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative and Quantitative methods.

Steps of Research.

Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing.

Application of ICT in research.

Research ethics.

Comprehension

A passage of text be given. Questions be asked from the passage to be answered.

Communication

Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication.

Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication.

Barriers to effective communication.

Mass-Media and Society.

Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude

Types of reasoning.

Number series, Letter series, Codes and Relationships.

Mathematical Aptitude (Fraction, Time & Distance, Ratio, Proportion and Percentage, Profit and Loss, Interest and Discounting, Averages etc.).

Data Interpretation

Sources, acquisition and classification of Data.

Quantitative and Qualitative Data.

Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart and Line-chart) and mapping of Data.

Data Interpretation.

Data and Governance.

Logical Reasoning

Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition.

Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning.

Analogies.

Venn diagram: Simple and multiple use for establishing validity of arguments.

Indian Logic: Means of knowledge.

Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).

Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

ICT: General abbreviations and terminology.

Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing.

Digital initiatives in higher education.

ICT and Governance.

Higher Education System

Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India.

Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India.

Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programmes in India.

Professional, Technical and Skill Based education.

Value education and environmental education.

Policies, Governance, and Administration.

People, Development and Environment

Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals.

Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on environment.

Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions.

Impacts of pollutants on human health.

Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests.

Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies.

Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

PAPER II

Inorganic Chemistry

Chemical periodicity

Structure and bonding in homo- and heteronuclear molecules including shapes of molecules (VSEPR Theory)

Concepts of acids and bases, Hard-Soft acid base concept, Non-aqueous solvents

Main group elements and their compounds: Allotropy, synthesis, structure and bonding, industrial importance of the compounds

Transition elements and coordination compounds: structure, bonding theories, spectral and magnetic properties, reaction mechanisms

Inner transition elements: spectral and magnetic properties, redox chemistry, analytical applications

Organometallic compounds: synthesis, bonding and structure, and reactivity. Organometallics in homogeneous catalysis

Cages and metal clusters.

Analytical chemistry- separation, spectroscopic, electro- and thermoanalytical methods

Bioinorganic chemistry: photosystems, porphyrins, metalloenzymes, oxygen transport, electron- transfer reactions; nitrogen fixation, metal complexes in medicine

Characterisation of inorganic compounds by IR, Raman, NMR, EPR, Mssbauer, UV-vis, NQR, MS, electron spectroscopy and microscopic techniques

Nuclear chemistry: nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, radio-analytical techniques and activation analysis

Physical Chemistry


Basic principles of quantum mechanics:

Postulates

operator algebra

exactly solvable systems: particle-in-a-box, harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, including shapes of atomic orbitals

orbital and spin angular momenta

tunneling

Approximate methods of quantum mechanics:

Variational principle

perturbation

theory up to second order in energy

applications.


Atomic structure and spectroscopy

term symbols

many-electron systems and antisymmetry principle


Chemical bonding in diatomics

elementary concepts of MO and VB theories

Huckel theory for conjugated π-electron systems


Chemical applications of group theory

symmetry elements

point groups

character tables

selection rules


Molecular spectroscopy:

Rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules

electronic spectra; IR and Raman activities - selection rules

basic principles of magnetic resonance


Chemical thermodynamics:

Laws, state and path functions and their applications

thermodynamic description of various types of processes

Maxwell's relations

spontaneity and equilibria

temperature and pressure dependence of thermodynamic quantities

Le Chatelier principle

elementary description of phase transitions; phase equilibria and phase rule

thermodynamics of ideal and non-ideal gases, and solutions


Statistical thermodynamics: Boltzmann distribution

kinetic theory of gases

partition functions and their relation to thermodynamic quantities - calculations for model systems


Electrochemistry:

Nernst equation, redox systems, electrochemical cells

DebyeHuckel theory

electrolytic conductance - Kohlrausch's law and its applications

ionic equilibria

conductometric and potentiometric titrations


Chemical kinetics:

Empirical rate laws and temperature dependence

complex reactions

steady state approximation

determination of reaction mechanisms

collision and transition state theories of rate constants

unimolecular reactions

enzyme kinetics

salt effects

homogeneous catalysis

photochemical reactions


Colloids and surfaces:

isotherms and surface area

heterogeneous catalysis

Stability and properties of colloids


Solid state:

Crystal structures

Bragg's law and applications

band structure of solids


Polymer chemistry:

Molar masses

kinetics of polymerization


Data analysis:

Mean and standard deviation

absolute and relative errors

linear regression

covariance and correlation coefficient.

Organic Chemistry


IUPAC nomenclature of organic molecules including regio- and stereoisomers

Principles of stereochemistry:

Configurational and conformational isomerism in acyclic and cyclic compounds

stereogenicity, stereoselectivity, enantioselectivity, diastereoselectivity and asymmetric induction.

Aromaticity: Benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds - generation and reactions

Organic reactive intermediates: Generation, stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.

Organic reaction mechanisms involving addition, elimination and substitution reactions with electrophilic, nucleophilic or radical species. Determination of reaction pathways.

Common named reactions and rearrangements - applications in organic synthesis.

Organic transformations and reagents:

Functional group interconversion including oxidations and reductions

common catalysts and reagents (organic, inorganic, organometallic and enzymatic)

Chemo, regio and stereoselective transformations.

Concepts in organic synthesis: Retrosynthesis, disconnection, synthons, linear and convergent synthesis, umpolung of reactivity and protecting groups.

Asymmetric synthesis: Chiral auxiliaries, methods of asymmetric induction - substrate, reagent and catalyst controlled reactions

determination of enantiomeric and diastereomeric excess

enantio-discrimination. Resolution - optical and kinetic.

Pericyclic reactions - electrocyclisation, cycloaddition, sigmatropic rearrangements and other related concerted reactions

Principles and applications of photochemical reactions in organic chemistry.

Synthesis and reactivity of common heterocyclic compounds containing one or two heteroatoms (O, N, S).

Chemistry of natural products: Carbohydrates, proteins and peptides, fatty acids, nucleic acids, terpenes, steroids and alkaloids. Biogenesis of terpenoids and alkaloids.

Structure determination of organic compounds by IR, UV-Vis, 1H & 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopic techniques.

Interdisciplinary topics


Chemistry in nanoscience and technology.

Catalysis and green chemistry.

Medicinal chemistry.

Supramolecular chemistry.

Environmental chemistry

Candidates should have to attend Both Paper I and Paper II. All questions are compulsory. Paper I is common for all subjects. Which contains language both English and Gujarati. Questions in paper II covers the entire subject. The syllabus is equivalent to UCG NET.

PAPER I

Teaching Aptitude

Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.

Learner's characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners(Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.

Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material,Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.

Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs.Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam,Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).

Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.

Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.

Research Aptitude

Research: Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Post- positivistic approach to research.

Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative and Quantitative methods.

Steps of Research.

Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing.

Application of ICT in research.

Research ethics.

Comprehension

A passage of text be given. Questions be asked from the passage to be answered.

Communication

Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication.

Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication.

Barriers to effective communication.

Mass-Media and Society.

Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude

Types of reasoning.

Number series, Letter series, Codes and Relationships.

Mathematical Aptitude (Fraction, Time & Distance, Ratio, Proportion and Percentage, Profit and Loss, Interest and Discounting, Averages etc.).

Data Interpretation

Sources, acquisition and classification of Data.

Quantitative and Qualitative Data.

Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart and Line-chart) and mapping of Data.

Data Interpretation.

Data and Governance.

Logical Reasoning

Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition.

Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning.

Analogies.

Venn diagram: Simple and multiple use for establishing validity of arguments.

Indian Logic: Means of knowledge.

Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).

Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

ICT: General abbreviations and terminology.

Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing.

Digital initiatives in higher education.

ICT and Governance.

Higher Education System

Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India.

Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India.

Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programmes in India.

Professional, Technical and Skill Based education.

Value education and environmental education.

Policies, Governance, and Administration.

People, Development and Environment

Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals.

Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on environment.

Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions.

Impacts of pollutants on human health.

Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests.

Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies.

Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

PAPER II

Inorganic Chemistry

Chemical periodicity

Structure and bonding in homo- and heteronuclear molecules including shapes of molecules (VSEPR Theory)

Concepts of acids and bases, Hard-Soft acid base concept, Non-aqueous solvents

Main group elements and their compounds: Allotropy, synthesis, structure and bonding, industrial importance of the compounds

Transition elements and coordination compounds: structure, bonding theories, spectral and magnetic properties, reaction mechanisms

Inner transition elements: spectral and magnetic properties, redox chemistry, analytical applications

Organometallic compounds: synthesis, bonding and structure, and reactivity. Organometallics in homogeneous catalysis

Cages and metal clusters.

Analytical chemistry- separation, spectroscopic, electro- and thermoanalytical methods

Bioinorganic chemistry: photosystems, porphyrins, metalloenzymes, oxygen transport, electron- transfer reactions; nitrogen fixation, metal complexes in medicine

Characterisation of inorganic compounds by IR, Raman, NMR, EPR, Mssbauer, UV-vis, NQR, MS, electron spectroscopy and microscopic techniques

Nuclear chemistry: nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, radio-analytical techniques and activation analysis

Physical Chemistry


Basic principles of quantum mechanics:

Postulates

operator algebra

exactly solvable systems: particle-in-a-box, harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, including shapes of atomic orbitals

orbital and spin angular momenta

tunneling

Approximate methods of quantum mechanics:

Variational principle

perturbation

theory up to second order in energy

applications.


Atomic structure and spectroscopy

term symbols

many-electron systems and antisymmetry principle


Chemical bonding in diatomics

elementary concepts of MO and VB theories

Huckel theory for conjugated π-electron systems


Chemical applications of group theory

symmetry elements

point groups

character tables

selection rules


Molecular spectroscopy:

Rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules

electronic spectra; IR and Raman activities - selection rules

basic principles of magnetic resonance


Chemical thermodynamics:

Laws, state and path functions and their applications

thermodynamic description of various types of processes

Maxwell's relations

spontaneity and equilibria

temperature and pressure dependence of thermodynamic quantities

Le Chatelier principle

elementary description of phase transitions; phase equilibria and phase rule

thermodynamics of ideal and non-ideal gases, and solutions


Statistical thermodynamics: Boltzmann distribution

kinetic theory of gases

partition functions and their relation to thermodynamic quantities - calculations for model systems


Electrochemistry:

Nernst equation, redox systems, electrochemical cells

DebyeHuckel theory

electrolytic conductance - Kohlrausch's law and its applications

ionic equilibria

conductometric and potentiometric titrations


Chemical kinetics:

Empirical rate laws and temperature dependence

complex reactions

steady state approximation

determination of reaction mechanisms

collision and transition state theories of rate constants

unimolecular reactions

enzyme kinetics

salt effects

homogeneous catalysis

photochemical reactions


Colloids and surfaces:

isotherms and surface area

heterogeneous catalysis

Stability and properties of colloids


Solid state:

Crystal structures

Bragg's law and applications

band structure of solids


Polymer chemistry:

Molar masses

kinetics of polymerization


Data analysis:

Mean and standard deviation

absolute and relative errors

linear regression

covariance and correlation coefficient.

Organic Chemistry


IUPAC nomenclature of organic molecules including regio- and stereoisomers

Principles of stereochemistry:

Configurational and conformational isomerism in acyclic and cyclic compounds

stereogenicity, stereoselectivity, enantioselectivity, diastereoselectivity and asymmetric induction.

Aromaticity: Benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds - generation and reactions

Organic reactive intermediates: Generation, stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.

Organic reaction mechanisms involving addition, elimination and substitution reactions with electrophilic, nucleophilic or radical species. Determination of reaction pathways.

Common named reactions and rearrangements - applications in organic synthesis.

Organic transformations and reagents:

Functional group interconversion including oxidations and reductions

common catalysts and reagents (organic, inorganic, organometallic and enzymatic)

Chemo, regio and stereoselective transformations.

Concepts in organic synthesis: Retrosynthesis, disconnection, synthons, linear and convergent synthesis, umpolung of reactivity and protecting groups.

Asymmetric synthesis: Chiral auxiliaries, methods of asymmetric induction - substrate, reagent and catalyst controlled reactions

determination of enantiomeric and diastereomeric excess

enantio-discrimination. Resolution - optical and kinetic.

Pericyclic reactions - electrocyclisation, cycloaddition, sigmatropic rearrangements and other related concerted reactions

Principles and applications of photochemical reactions in organic chemistry.

Synthesis and reactivity of common heterocyclic compounds containing one or two heteroatoms (O, N, S).

Chemistry of natural products: Carbohydrates, proteins and peptides, fatty acids, nucleic acids, terpenes, steroids and alkaloids. Biogenesis of terpenoids and alkaloids.

Structure determination of organic compounds by IR, UV-Vis, 1H & 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopic techniques.

Interdisciplinary topics


Chemistry in nanoscience and technology.

Catalysis and green chemistry.

Medicinal chemistry.

Supramolecular chemistry.

Environmental chemistry


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