RPSC BOTANY & ZOOLOGY LECTURESHIP SYLLABUS


The syllabus consist of two papers as follows : RPSC Botany And Zoology Lecturer Exam Paper is Objective type. Paper I and Paper I will be of 3 hours duration respectively. Paper I will be of 75 marks and Paper II will be of 75 marks. In Exam there will be 150 questions each of Botany And Zoology Paper I & II. All Questions carry equal marks. There will be no negative marking

PAPER 1

1

Algae in diversified habitats (Terrestrial, fresh water, marine)

Thallus organization, Cell structure and reproduction in different classes/groups

criteria in classification of Algae

Economic Importance of Algae

2

General characteristic in different classes/groups of fungi

cell ultra structure

ell wall composition

reproduction

heterothallism

para sexuality

recent trends in classification

economic importance of fungi

mycorrhizae and lichens.

3

Archaebacteria

eubacteria and cyanobacteria

ultra-structure and reproduction

Prions

L-Forms

Virioids

characteristics and ultra structure of virions

Mycoplasma

Spiroplasma and Phytoplasma - General characters and role in causing plant diseases

microbiology of water

air and soil.

4

General account of diseases caused by plant pathogens

molecular basis of host parasite interaction

pathogen attack and defense mechanism

diseases of important field crops of Rajasthan (red rot of sugar cane, rust of wheat, covered smut of wheat, loose smut of wheat, green ear disease of bajra, leaf spot and smut of jowar, ergot and smut of bajra, root knot and rot diseases of vegetables)

diseases control and the role of information technology.

5

General characters

structure

reproduction

evolution and interrelationships in Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms

Evolution of Stele

heterospory and seed habit

principles of palaeobotany.

6

Taxonomic hierarchy

principles of nomenclature

taxonomic tools

important systems of classification (Bentham and Hooker, Engler and Prantl, Hutchinson and Takhtajan)

Role of morphology

anatomy

embryology

palynology

cytology

phytochemistry

genome analysis and nucleic acid hybridization in taxonomy

taxonomy of some selected families of Rajasthan (Leguminoceae Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadeceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Poaceae)

phylogeny of angiosperms.

7

General concept of plant morphology - origin and evolution of flower

primitive living angiosperms

foliar stamens

open carpels

organization of root and shoot apical meristems.

8

Development of male and female gametophytes

pollination

pollen pistil interaction, fertilization

endosperm development and embryogenesis

seed development and fruit formation

polyembryony apomixis

embryo culture

biochemistry and molecular biology of fruit maturation.

9

Basic concepts of ecology

ecological factors affecting plant growth

Principles of limiting factors

Population characteristics

population interaction

r and K selection

Genecology and range extensions

community characteristics

community classification

continuum concept

ecological niche

plant succession in various habitats

concept of climax

Structure and function of ecosystem

energy flow and biogeochemical cycles (N,P,C,S)

primary production

plant indicators

major biomes of the world

Phytogeographical regions of India

vegetation of Rajashan

Ecosystem services.

10

Environmental pollution- air, water, noise and soil, Green house effect, Ozone layer depletion, Acid rain

Concept of biodiversity with special reference to India, Hot spots, strategies for conservation of flora and fauna, Bio monitoring, Environmental Impact Assessment.

11

Plant civilization

centers of origin

gene diversity

utilization

cultivation and improvement of plants of food (rice, wheat, bajra, pulses, green gram, moth and beans) Oil seeds (mustard, soybean and ground nut), drugs (Rauvolfia, Ephedra, Papaver, Atropa, Cinchona and Withania), Fibre - Cotton, jute & coir and plants of industrial value - Tobacco, sugarcane, tea and coffee

Ethnobotany

underexploited plants of potential medicinal and food value with special reference to Rajasthan.

12

Light and Electron microscopy (TEM & SEM)

Confocal Electron microscopy

phase contrast

fixation and staining

HPLC

electrophoresis

ELISA

Spectrophotometry

Centrifugation.

Paper II

1

Plant-water relation

membrane transport and translocation of water and solutes.

2

Enzymes - Classification, mechanism of action, role in metabolism, enzyme, kinetics, regulation of enzyme activity, active sites, coenzymes, Activators and inhibitors, isozymes.

3

Photosynthesis - Pigments, photophosphorylation, Mechanism of photosynthesis, photorespiration, photosynthesis in C4 plants, CAM.

4

Nitrogen metabolism - amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis

Fatty acid metabolism

Signal transduction: overview receptors and Gproteins, specific signaling mechanism in bacteria and proteins.

5

Respiration - Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation, Glycogen breakdown, inter conversion of hexoses and pentoses.

6

Seed dormancy and germination, hormonal regulation of growth and development

Physiological effects and mechanism of action of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, plant rythms and biological clock, secondary metabolites, plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses

Physiology of flowering- Photoperiodism and Vernalization.

7

Ultra structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell membrane structure and function,

cell organelles- structure and functions

Nucleus -structure, nuclear pores

DNA Structure - A,B and Z forms, replication, damage and repair, transcription, splicing and nucleolus, cells cycle, structure of chromatin and its organization, specialized types of chromosomes, banding patterns, chromosomal aberration and polyploidy.

8

Genetics of eukaryote and prokaryote organelles

mapping of bacteriophage genome

genetic transformation

conjugation and transduction in bacteria

genetics of mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility.

9

Techniques in cell biology-in situ hybridization FISH, GISH, genetic code, transcription and translation, operon model, RNA polymerase

Genetic mapping : Independent assortment and crossing over, molecular mechanism of recombination, chromosome mapping, linkage groups

Molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutation and their role in evolution, principles of plant breeding important conventional methods of self and cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops, mutation breeding.

10

Basic concepts, principles and scope of Biotechnology

plant cell and tissue culture

concept of totipotency

micropropagation by organogenesis and adventitious shoot bud differentiation

axillary bud proliferation and embryogenesis

somatic hybridization - protoplast isolation, fusion and culture

artificial seeds

production of hybrids and somaclones

hybrids

production of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds.

11

Recombination DNA Technology : Restriction enzymes, reverse transcriptase

Gene cloning, principles and techniques, construction of genomic/s

DNA libraries, DNA synthesis and sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, DNA finger printing

Genetic engineering of plants : Aims, strategies for development of transgenics, Agrobacterium and microinjection mediated gene transfer in plants, intellectual property rights and possible ecological risks and ethical concerns, microbial genetic manipulation

Structural and functional genomics, microarray, genome sequencing projects (with special reference to rice, wheat, chick pea and tomato) and proteomics.

12

Principles and practices of statistical methods in biological research, samples and population, Data collection and processing, Basic statistics (averages, statistics of dispersion, coefficient of variation, standard error and deviation)

confidence limits, probability, Distribution (Binomial, Poisson and Normal) Tests of statistical significance, simple correlation and regression, Analysis of variance.

PAPER-I

Taxonomy

Principles and basis of classification

Binomial system of nomenclature

General survey of animal kingdom, classification upto order and interrelationship of the various phyla.

Diversity of Life Forms

Structure and functions of the invertebrates from Protozoa to Echinodermata

Levels of structural organizations- Unicellular, colonial and multicellular forms, Coelom, segmentation and metamerism

Locomotory organs and their mechanisms

Food, feeding and digestion

Respiration

Excretory and osmoregulatory organs

Primitive and advanced nervous systems

Reproduction: Asexual, sexual and parthenogenesis

Larval forms.

Structural organization of the following chordate types

Protochordates, Balanoglossus, Herdamania, Branchiostoma

Chordates- Structure, classification and organization of vertebrates

Comparative anatomy of the integument, skeletal, digestive, respiratory, circulatory, urinogenital & nervous systems of vertebrates

Adaptation in vertebrates; Adaptations in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals

Economic importance of non-chordates and chordates.

Developmental Biology

Gametogenesis

Fertilization

Types of eggs cleavage and gastrulation, fate maps, metamorphosis in frog

Formation and fate of extra embryonic membranes in chick

Function and types of placenta in mammals

Sex differentiation in humans

Basic idea of regeneration, organogenesis and organisers

Cell differentiation and teratogenesis.

Evolution

Origin of life; history of evolutionary thoughts

Lamarkism and Darwinism. Sources and nature of variations. Natural selection. Hardy-Weinberg law, cryptic and warning colouration, mimicry, isolation

Concept of species and sub-species

Fossils, outline of geological eras. Origin and evolution of man

Principles and theories of continental distribution of animals

Zoogeographical realms of the world.

Animal Ecology

Population, interspecific and interaspecific relationships, competition, predation, parasitism, commensalism, co-operation and mutualism

Community ecology and succession, concept of ecosystem

Biogeochemical cycles. Limiting factors. Concepts of habitat and ecological niche

Major biomes and their communities

Pollution - its control and management. Bioremediation.

Brain, Behavior and Evolution

Approaches and methods in study of behaviour

Proximate and ultimate causation, altruism and evolution-Group selection, kin selection, reciprocal altruism

Neural basis of learning, memory, cognition, sleep and arousal

Biological clocks, Development of behaviour, Social communication; Social dominance; Use of space and territoriality. Aggressive behaviour

Parental investment and Reproductive success; Parental care, Mating systems

Habitat selection and optimality in foraging; Migration, orientation and navigation; Domestication and behavioral changes.

Wild life studies

Different types of biodiversity, conservation and major wild life sanctuaries in Rajasthan

Endangered species and wild life of Rajasthan.

Paper-II

Cell and Molecular Biology

Microscopic techniques: Florescence, Phase contrast, Confocal, Electron and Atomic force microscopes

Tissue preparation for different microscopes- Histochemical and immunochemical techniques- Histochemical staining of Nucleic acids and Enzymes. Antibody generation, ELISA, RIA, Blotting techniques, Immunocytochemical techniques, FISH, GISH.

Radiolabelling Techniques; Types and properties of Radio isotopes, Tracer techniques, Autoradiography and safety guidelines.

Electrophoresis, Centrifugation, Chromatography, Colorimetry Spectrophotometry.

Structure and function of cell and cytoplamic constituents: Structure of nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and ribosomes. Cell cycle and cell division.

Gene structure and function

Structure and types of nucleic acids.

DNA replication, repair and recombination (Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific recombination).

RNA synthesis and processing (transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activator and repressor, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation, and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport).

Protein synthesis and processing (Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, and translational proofreading, translational inhibitors, Postranslational modification of proteins).

Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level (regulating the expression of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing).

Cell to Cell Communication and Cell signaling

Host parasite interaction Recognition and entry processes of different pathogens like bacteria, viruses into animal and plant host cells, alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens, virus-induced cell transformation, pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants, cellcell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells.

Cell signaling Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component systems, light signaling in plants, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.

Cellular communication Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation.

Cancer: Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth.

Genetics

Mendelian laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, linkage maps and crossing over. Multiple alleles.

Mutation Natural and induced mutations. Chromosome number and forms, structural rearrangements; Polyploidy.

Cytoplasmic inheritance.

Elements of human genetics normal and abnormal karyotypes, genes and diseases, eugenics.

Sex chromosomes and sex determination.

Biotechnology

Isolation and purification of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins. Different separation methods.

Analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing gels.

Molecular cloning of DNA & RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems.

Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors.

Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences, Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries.

Plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors.

In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms.

Protein sequencing methods, detection of post translation modification of proteins. DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing.

Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression, such as micro array based techniques.

Isolation, separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules.

RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques.

Human Physiology

Chemistry of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Enzymes and hormones. Biological oxidation. Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and lipids.

Cell Physiology- Structure, types and mechanism of muscle contraction. Structure of neuron and transmission of axonic and synaptic nerve impulse.

Functions of sensory organs concerned with vision, sound perception, taste, smell and touch.

Physiology of Gastrointestinal tract: Contractility, Secretion of digestive juices, GI hormones. Mechanism of digestion and absorption.

Physiology of Respiration: Pulmonary ventilation and gaseous exchange.

Structure and Circulation of Blood: Blood structure and functions, blood groups, clotting of blood, elementary idea of immunology. Structure and functions of the heart, Cardiac Cycle, Heart Beat, and its chemical regulation.

Physiology of Excretion: Kidney structure, urine formation, counter current mechanism, regulation of electrolyte and water balance of the body.

Endocrine Physiology: Structure, functions of Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Islets of langerhans and pineal gland.

Physiology of Reproduction: Structure and hormones of Ovary & Testis. Hormonal control of gametogenesis and menstrual cycle.

Placentation, Gestation and Partuirition.

Statistical application in Biology

Mean, median, mode, students "t" test, chi-square test, standard deviation.

Correlation and regression, variance and analysis of variance.

Computer applications in biology fundamentals of computers, history and generations.