Algae in diversified habitats (Terrestrial, fresh water, marine)
Thallus organization, Cell structure and reproduction in different classes/groups
criteria in classification of Algae
Economic Importance of Algae
General characteristic in different classes/groups of fungi
cell ultra structure
ell wall composition
recent trends in classification
economic importance of fungi
mycorrhizae and lichens.
eubacteria and cyanobacteria
ultra-structure and reproduction
characteristics and ultra structure of virions
Spiroplasma and Phytoplasma - General characters and role in causing plant diseases
microbiology of water
air and soil.
General account of diseases caused by plant pathogens
molecular basis of host parasite interaction
pathogen attack and defense mechanism
diseases of important field crops of Rajasthan (red rot of sugar cane, rust of wheat, covered smut of wheat, loose smut of wheat, green ear disease of bajra, leaf spot and smut of jowar, ergot and smut of bajra, root knot and rot diseases of vegetables)
diseases control and the role of information technology.
evolution and interrelationships in Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms
Evolution of Stele
heterospory and seed habit
principles of palaeobotany.
principles of nomenclature
important systems of classification (Bentham and Hooker, Engler and Prantl, Hutchinson and Takhtajan)
Role of morphology
genome analysis and nucleic acid hybridization in taxonomy
taxonomy of some selected families of Rajasthan (Leguminoceae Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadeceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Poaceae)
phylogeny of angiosperms.
General concept of plant morphology - origin and evolution of flower
primitive living angiosperms
organization of root and shoot apical meristems.
Development of male and female gametophytes
pollen pistil interaction, fertilization
endosperm development and embryogenesis
seed development and fruit formation
biochemistry and molecular biology of fruit maturation.
Basic concepts of ecology
ecological factors affecting plant growth
Principles of limiting factors
r and K selection
Genecology and range extensions
plant succession in various habitats
concept of climax
Structure and function of ecosystem
energy flow and biogeochemical cycles (N,P,C,S)
major biomes of the world
Phytogeographical regions of India
vegetation of Rajashan
Environmental pollution- air, water, noise and soil, Green house effect, Ozone layer depletion, Acid rain
Concept of biodiversity with special reference to India, Hot spots, strategies for conservation of flora and fauna, Bio monitoring, Environmental Impact Assessment.
centers of origin
cultivation and improvement of plants of food (rice, wheat, bajra, pulses, green gram, moth and beans) Oil seeds (mustard, soybean and ground nut), drugs (Rauvolfia, Ephedra, Papaver, Atropa, Cinchona and Withania), Fibre - Cotton, jute & coir and plants of industrial value - Tobacco, sugarcane, tea and coffee
underexploited plants of potential medicinal and food value with special reference to Rajasthan.
Light and Electron microscopy (TEM & SEM)
Confocal Electron microscopy
fixation and staining
membrane transport and translocation of water and solutes.
Enzymes - Classification, mechanism of action, role in metabolism, enzyme, kinetics, regulation of enzyme activity, active sites, coenzymes, Activators and inhibitors, isozymes.
Photosynthesis - Pigments, photophosphorylation, Mechanism of photosynthesis, photorespiration, photosynthesis in C4 plants, CAM.
Nitrogen metabolism - amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis
Fatty acid metabolism
Signal transduction: overview receptors and Gproteins, specific signaling mechanism in bacteria and proteins.
Respiration - Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation, Glycogen breakdown, inter conversion of hexoses and pentoses.
Seed dormancy and germination, hormonal regulation of growth and development
Physiological effects and mechanism of action of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, plant rythms and biological clock, secondary metabolites, plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses
Physiology of flowering- Photoperiodism and Vernalization.
Ultra structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell membrane structure and function,
cell organelles- structure and functions
Nucleus -structure, nuclear pores
DNA Structure - A,B and Z forms, replication, damage and repair, transcription, splicing and nucleolus, cells cycle, structure of chromatin and its organization, specialized types of chromosomes, banding patterns, chromosomal aberration and polyploidy.
Genetics of eukaryote and prokaryote organelles
mapping of bacteriophage genome
conjugation and transduction in bacteria
genetics of mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility.
Techniques in cell biology-in situ hybridization FISH, GISH, genetic code, transcription and translation, operon model, RNA polymerase
Genetic mapping : Independent assortment and crossing over, molecular mechanism of recombination, chromosome mapping, linkage groups
Molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutation and their role in evolution, principles of plant breeding important conventional methods of self and cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops, mutation breeding.
Basic concepts, principles and scope of Biotechnology
plant cell and tissue culture
concept of totipotency
micropropagation by organogenesis and adventitious shoot bud differentiation
axillary bud proliferation and embryogenesis
somatic hybridization - protoplast isolation, fusion and culture
production of hybrids and somaclones
production of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds.
Recombination DNA Technology : Restriction enzymes, reverse transcriptase
Gene cloning, principles and techniques, construction of genomic/s
DNA libraries, DNA synthesis and sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, DNA finger printing
Genetic engineering of plants : Aims, strategies for development of transgenics, Agrobacterium and microinjection mediated gene transfer in plants, intellectual property rights and possible ecological risks and ethical concerns, microbial genetic manipulation
Structural and functional genomics, microarray, genome sequencing projects (with special reference to rice, wheat, chick pea and tomato) and proteomics.
Principles and practices of statistical methods in biological research, samples and population, Data collection and processing, Basic statistics (averages, statistics of dispersion, coefficient of variation, standard error and deviation)
confidence limits, probability, Distribution (Binomial, Poisson and Normal) Tests of statistical significance, simple correlation and regression, Analysis of variance.
Principles and basis of classification
Binomial system of nomenclature
General survey of animal kingdom, classification upto order and interrelationship of the various phyla.
Diversity of Life Forms
Structure and functions of the invertebrates from Protozoa to Echinodermata
Levels of structural organizations- Unicellular, colonial and multicellular forms, Coelom, segmentation and metamerism
Locomotory organs and their mechanisms
Food, feeding and digestion
Excretory and osmoregulatory organs
Primitive and advanced nervous systems
Reproduction: Asexual, sexual and parthenogenesis
Structural organization of the following chordate types
Protochordates, Balanoglossus, Herdamania, Branchiostoma
Chordates- Structure, classification and organization of vertebrates
Comparative anatomy of the integument, skeletal, digestive, respiratory, circulatory, urinogenital & nervous systems of vertebrates
Adaptation in vertebrates; Adaptations in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
Economic importance of non-chordates and chordates.
Types of eggs cleavage and gastrulation, fate maps, metamorphosis in frog
Formation and fate of extra embryonic membranes in chick
Function and types of placenta in mammals
Sex differentiation in humans
Basic idea of regeneration, organogenesis and organisers
Cell differentiation and teratogenesis.
Origin of life; history of evolutionary thoughts
Lamarkism and Darwinism. Sources and nature of variations. Natural selection. Hardy-Weinberg law, cryptic and warning colouration, mimicry, isolation
Concept of species and sub-species
Fossils, outline of geological eras. Origin and evolution of man
Principles and theories of continental distribution of animals
Zoogeographical realms of the world.
Population, interspecific and interaspecific relationships, competition, predation, parasitism, commensalism, co-operation and mutualism
Community ecology and succession, concept of ecosystem
Biogeochemical cycles. Limiting factors. Concepts of habitat and ecological niche
Major biomes and their communities
Pollution - its control and management. Bioremediation.
Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Approaches and methods in study of behaviour
Proximate and ultimate causation, altruism and evolution-Group selection, kin selection, reciprocal altruism
Neural basis of learning, memory, cognition, sleep and arousal
Biological clocks, Development of behaviour, Social communication; Social dominance; Use of space and territoriality. Aggressive behaviour
Parental investment and Reproductive success; Parental care, Mating systems
Habitat selection and optimality in foraging; Migration, orientation and navigation; Domestication and behavioral changes.
Wild life studies
Different types of biodiversity, conservation and major wild life sanctuaries in Rajasthan
Endangered species and wild life of Rajasthan.
Cell and Molecular Biology
Microscopic techniques: Florescence, Phase contrast, Confocal, Electron and Atomic force microscopes
Tissue preparation for different microscopes- Histochemical and immunochemical techniques- Histochemical staining of Nucleic acids and Enzymes. Antibody generation, ELISA, RIA, Blotting techniques, Immunocytochemical techniques, FISH, GISH.
Radiolabelling Techniques; Types and properties of Radio isotopes, Tracer techniques, Autoradiography and safety guidelines.
Electrophoresis, Centrifugation, Chromatography, Colorimetry Spectrophotometry.
Structure and function of cell and cytoplamic constituents: Structure of nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and ribosomes. Cell cycle and cell division.
Gene structure and function
Structure and types of nucleic acids.
DNA replication, repair and recombination (Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific recombination).
RNA synthesis and processing (transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activator and repressor, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation, and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport).
Protein synthesis and processing (Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, and translational proofreading, translational inhibitors, Postranslational modification of proteins).
Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level (regulating the expression of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing).
Cell to Cell Communication and Cell signaling
Host parasite interaction Recognition and entry processes of different pathogens like bacteria, viruses into animal and plant host cells, alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens, virus-induced cell transformation, pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants, cellcell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells.
Cell signaling Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component systems, light signaling in plants, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.
Cellular communication Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation.
Cancer: Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth.
Mendelian laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, linkage maps and crossing over. Multiple alleles.
Mutation – Natural and induced mutations. Chromosome number and forms, structural rearrangements; Polyploidy.
Elements of human genetics – normal and abnormal karyotypes, genes and diseases, eugenics.
Sex chromosomes and sex determination.
Isolation and purification of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins. Different separation methods.
Analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing gels.
Molecular cloning of DNA & RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems.
Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors.
Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences, Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries.
Plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors.
In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms.
Protein sequencing methods, detection of post translation modification of proteins. DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing.
Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression, such as micro array based techniques.
Isolation, separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules.
RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques.
Chemistry of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Enzymes and hormones. Biological oxidation. Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and lipids.
Cell Physiology- Structure, types and mechanism of muscle contraction. Structure of neuron and transmission of axonic and synaptic nerve impulse.
Functions of sensory organs concerned with vision, sound perception, taste, smell and touch.
Physiology of Gastrointestinal tract: Contractility, Secretion of digestive juices, GI hormones. Mechanism of digestion and absorption.
Physiology of Respiration: Pulmonary ventilation and gaseous exchange.
Structure and Circulation of Blood: Blood structure and functions, blood groups, clotting of blood, elementary idea of immunology. Structure and functions of the heart, Cardiac Cycle, Heart Beat, and its chemical regulation.
Physiology of Excretion: Kidney structure, urine formation, counter current mechanism, regulation of electrolyte and water balance of the body.
Endocrine Physiology: Structure, functions of Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Islets of langerhans and pineal gland.
Physiology of Reproduction: Structure and hormones of Ovary & Testis. Hormonal control of gametogenesis and menstrual cycle.
Placentation, Gestation and Partuirition.
Statistical application in Biology
Mean, median, mode, students "t" test, chi-square test, standard deviation.
Correlation and regression, variance and analysis of variance.
Computer applications in biology – fundamentals of computers, history and generations.