Basic Mathematical Concepts


maxima and minima


ordinary differential equations

vectors and matrices


elementary statistics and probability theory.

Atomic and Molecular Structure

Fundamental particles

Bohr's theory of hydrogen-like atom

wave-particle duality

uncertainty principle

Schrodinger's wave equation

quantum numbers

shapes of orbitals

Hund's rule and Pauli's exclusion principle

electronic configuration of simple homonuclear diatomic molecules.

Theory of Gases

Equation of state for ideal and non-ideal (van der Waals) gases

Kinetic theory of gases

Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law

equipartition of energy.

Solid State

Crystals and crystal systems


NaCl and KCl structures

close packing

atomic and ionic radii

radius ratio rules

lattice energy

Born-Haber cycle


heat capacity of solids.

Chemical Thermodynamics

Reversible and irreversible processes

first law and its application to ideal and nonideal gases


second law

entropy and free energy

criteria for spontaneity.

Chemical and Phase Equilibria

Law of mass action

Kp, Kc, Kx and Kn

effect of temperature on K

ionic equilibria in solutions

pH and buffer solutions


solubility product

phase equilibria-phase rule and its application to one-component and two-component systems

colligative properties.


Conductance and its applications

transport number

galvanic cells

EMF and free energy

concentration cells with and without transport


concentration cells with and without transport

Debey-Huckel-Onsagar theory of strong electrolytes.

Chemical Kinetics

Reactions of various order

Arrhenius equation

collision theory

transition state theory

chain reactions - normal and branched

enzyme kinetics

photochemical processes



Gibbs adsorption equation

adsorption isotherm

types of adsorption

surface area of adsorbents

surface films on liquids.


Beer-Lambert law

fundamental concepts of rotational, vibrational, electronic and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.


Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry and Stereochemistry

Electronic effects (resonance, inductive, hyperconjugation) and steric effects and its applications (acid/base property)

optical isomerism in compounds with and without any stereocenters (allenes, biphenyls)

conformation of acyclic systems (substituted ethane/n-propane/n-butane) and cyclic systems (mono- and di-substituted cyclohexanes).

Organic Reaction Mechanism and Synthetic Applications

Chemistry of reactive intermediates (carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, nitrenes, benzynes etc.)

Hofmann-Curtius-Lossen rearrangement, Wolff rearrangement, Simmons-Smith reaction, Reimer-Tiemann reaction, Michael reaction, Darzens reaction, Wittig reaction and McMurry reaction

Pinacol-pinacolone, Favorskii, benzilic acid rearrangement, dienone-phenol rearrangement, Baeyer-Villeger reaction

oxidation and reduction reactions in organic chemistry

organometallic reagents in organic synthesis (Grignard, organolithium and organocopper)

Diels-Alder, electrocyclic and sigmatropic reactions

functional group inter-conversions and structural problems using chemical reactions.

Qualitative Organic Analysis

Identification of functional groups by chemical tests

elementary UV, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques as tools for structural elucidation.

Natural Products Chemistry

Chemistry of alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides and nucleic acids.

Aromatic and Heterocyclic Chemistry

Monocyclic, bicyclic and tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and monocyclic compounds with one hetero atom: synthesis, reactivity and properties.


Periodic Table

Periodic classification of elements and periodicity in properties

general methods of isolation and purification of elements.

Chemical Bonding and Shapes of Compounds

Types of bonding

VSEPR theory and shapes of molecules

hybridization; dipole moment

ionic solids

structure of NaCl, CsCl, diamond and graphite

lattice energy.

Main Group Elements (s and p blocks)

General concepts on group relationships and gradation in properties

structure of electron deficient compounds involving main group elements.

Transition Metals (d block)

Characteristics of 3d elements

oxide, hydroxide and salts of first row metals

coordination complexes: structure, isomerism, reaction mechanism and electronic spectra

VB, MO and Crystal Field theoretical approaches for structure, color and magnetic properties of metal complexes

organometallic compounds having ligands with back bonding capabilities such as metal carbonyls, carbenes, nitrosyls and metallocenes

homogenous catalysis.

Bioinorganic Chemistry

Essentials and trace elements of life

basic reactions in the biological systems and the role of metal ions, especially Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+

structure and function of hemoglobin and myoglobin and carbonic anhydrase.

Instrumental Methods of Analysis

Basic principles

instrumentations and simple applications of conductometry, potentiometry and UV-vis spectrophotometry

analysis of water, air and soil samples.

Analytical Chemistry

Principles of qualitative and quantitative analysis

acid-base, oxidation-reduction and complexometric titrations using EDTA

precipitation reactions; use of indicators

use of organic reagents in inorganic analysis


nuclear reactions

applications of isotopes.