Banaras Hindu University (BHU) SYLLABUS

BHU Syllabus designed for to crack the examination & obtain better rank in BHU entrance Exam, Comprises 2 sections Life Science & Biotechnology. Candidates by now can check the subject wise Detailed BHU syllabus


1 General: Classification of Plant Kingdom: Two, Three, Four & Five, Six Kingdom Classification & Three domains of Life. Classification specially given for Kingdom 'Plantae' by A. W. Eichler & Oswald Tippo. Characteristic features of each group, their similarity and dissimilarity with other groups. 1. Algae (Phycology): Pioneer workers in Algae. Classification by Fritsch. General Characters: Cell Wall, Flagella, Reserve Food Material, Pigments, Reproduction in Algae, Alternation of generation. Chlorophyceae (Green algae): General characters, Life Cycle of Oedogonium, Life Cycle of Vaucheria. Phaeophyceae (Brown algae): General characters, Life Cycle of Ectocarpus, Life Cycle of Sargassum. Cyanophyceae (Myxophyceae or Blue-Green algae): General characters. Rhodophyceae (Red algae): General characters, Life Cycle of Batrachospermum, Life Cycle of Polysiphonia. Economic importance of Algae: Useful (Edible algae, Nitrogen fixing algae, Protein rich Algae, Iodine, Carrageenin, Agar-agar) & Harmful (Red rust of tea, Water bloom, Red tides). Evolutionary Significance of Fritschiella & Coleochaete.
2 Fungi (Mycology): General characters of Fungi. Classification proposed by G.C. Ainsworth. Mastigomycotina: Features of Oomycota, Synchytrium (Wart-disease of potato), Peronospora (Downy mildew), Saprolegnia, Albugo (White rust of crucifers), Pythium (Damping-off seedling), Phytophthora (Late blight of potato). Zygomycotina: Rhizopus (Soft rot disease of sweet potato). Ascomycotina: Erysiphe (Powdery mildew), Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Neurospora, Penicillium, Taphrina, Claviceps. Types of fruiting body. Basidiomycotina: General characters, Clamp connection, Dolipore septum. Agaricus, Ustilago (Smut), Puccinia (Rust). Deuteromycotina: Alternaria (Potato 2 famine of Ireland), Colletotrichum (Red rot of sugarcane), Cercospora (Tikka disease of groundnut), Helminthosporium (Famine of Bengal). Other Common diseases and their causal organism. Hypertrophy & Hyperplasia, Parasitism, Heterothallism, Parasexuality. Economic importance: Edible fungus, Fermentation products of Yeast, Mycotoxins, Aflatoxin, Antibiotic, Source of vitamins, Biopesticide, Commercial production of citric acid, Cyclosporine-A (Cs-A), Fungal symbiosis, Gene-for gene relationship, Capillitium, Pilobolus, Phragmidium.
3 Lichen: General characters of Lichen. Common names of some Lichens. Nature of association of Phycobiont and Mycobiont in Lichens. Classification based on fungal component; based on thallus structures; based on surface on which they grow. Reproduction and Economic Importance.
4 Bryophytes: Pioneer workers in Bryophytes. General characters of Bryophytes: Life cycle and alternation of generation, Origin of Bryophytes, Saprophytic bryophytes. General classification of Bryophytes. Hepaticopsida: General characters; Riccia, Marchantia, Pellia; Anthocerotopsida: General characters; Anthoceros; Bryopsida: General characters; Sphagnum, Pogonatum, Funaria. Evolution of sporophyte in Bryophytes. Comparative study of all the members. Bryophytes in Geological Time Scale.
5 Pteridophytes: General characters of Pteridophytes: Homospory and Heterospory, Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiate, Microphyllous and Megaphyllous Pteridophytes. General Classification. Important members of Pteridophytes: Rhynia, Equisetum, Dryopteris, Azolla, Selaginella, Marsilea, Salvinia. Telome theory. Stellar system. Chromosome in Ophioglossum. Common Names of some of important Pteridophytes.
6 Gymnosperms:Pioneer workers in Gymnosper and their contribution. General Characters. Classification with characters and evolution of each group through Geological Time Scale. Fossil Gymnosperms. Members: Williamsonia, Pentaxylon, Cycas, Pinus, Ginkgo, Gnetum. Economic importance. Affinities of Gymnosperms.
7 Angiosperm: Outline of Classification Systems for Flowering Plants: Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic classification systems, Linnaeus, Bentham and Hooker, Hutchinson, Thakhatajan, Engler and Prantl. Binomial Nomenclature. Botanical Gardens, Herbarium, Flora, Dichotomus Key, Typification, Outline of Rules and Principles of International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (ICN, previously called ICBN). Modern Trends in Plant Taxonomy. Plant families: Dicotyledons: Ranunculaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Nelumbonaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae, Papaveraceae, Brassicaceae(Cruciferae), Caryophyllaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Rosaceae, Myrtaceae, Puniaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Cactaceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae). Rubiaceae, Asteraceae (Compositae), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Convolvulaceae, Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Acanthaceae, Verbenaceae, Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae. Monocots: Orchidaceae, Liliaceae, Iridaceae, Musaceae, Zingiberaceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae. External Morphology of Vegetative & Reproductive parts: Modifications of Root, Stem, Buds, Leaves etc. Types and modifications of Inflorescence, Flower, Calyx, Corolla, Stamens, Carpels, Ovary, Fruits, Seed; special emphasis in relation to above plant families. Plants important to Humans: Drug, Fibers, Rubber, Oil yielding plants.
8 Embryology: Microsporangium, Microsporogenesis & Male Gametophyte. Megasporangium, Megasporogenesis & Female Gametophyte, Embryo sac development. Pollination, Fertilization, Embryogenesis, Apogamy, Apomixis, Apospory, Parthenogamy , Parthenogenesis & Polyembryony.
9 Anatomy: Meristems, Permanent Tissue. Leaf, Stem and Root Anatomy. Types of vascular Bundles with example. Cambium and secondary growth. Anomalous structures with example.
10 Cytology: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Structure and Function of: Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Nucleus, Ribosomes, Lysosome, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Complex, Peroxisomes, Vacuole, Mitochondria, Chloroplast. Cell Division (Mitosis and Meiosis) and Cancer.
11 Biochemistry: Amino Acids: Structure and Properties, Metabolism, Products Derived From Amino Acids. Proteins structure and function. Enzymes: Structure, Function & Classification, Apoenzyme, Coenzyme, Cofactor, Allozymes, Isozymes, Feedback inhibition. Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids. Lipids: Structure and Properties, Metabolism, Products Derived From Lipid.
12 Molecular Biology: Structure of DNA and Chromosome: DNA as genetic material: Hershey and Chase, Griffith and Avery. Watson and Crick, A, B & Z-DNA, Histone & Non-histone, Nucleosome, Compaction factor of DNA, Euchromatin & Heterochromatin, Telomeres, Transposons, NOR, Satellite DNA. Karyogram, Karyotype, Histogram, Ideogram, Idiotype. Stains and Staining techniques of chromosome. Replication: Meselson and Stahl, DNA and RNA polymerase, DNA topoisomerase, DNA ligase, Okazaki fragment. Transcription: Coding strand, Antisense strand, Polycistronic & Monocistronic gene, DNA methylation, Split genes, Exon and intron. Translation: Ribosome and their components,16S ribosomal RNA, tRNA, Anticodon, Initiation and Termination of transcription, antibiotics affecting translation, Aptamers, Second genetic code. Regulation: lac operon, lytic and lysogeny switch control. Mutation: mutagens, transversion and transversion, complementation test, base analogue, alkylating agent, frame shift mutation, dimerization.
13 Genetics & Cytogenetics: Mendelism: Characters considered by Mendel, Law of segregation & Law of independent assortment, Monohybrid cross, Phenotypic and Genotypic ratio in F1 and F2 generations. Test cross and Back cross. Dihybrid cross: Phenotypic and Genotypic ratio in F1 and F2 generations. Gamete formation in Trihybrid cross & Tetrahybrid cross. Secret of Mendel's success. Extensions of Mendelism: Incomplete Dominance and Codominance, Cytoplasmic inheritance,Epistasis: Recessive Epistasis (9:3:4), Dominant Epistasis (12:3:1), Duplicate Dominant Epistasis (15:1), Duplicate Recessive Epistasis (9:7). Polygenic Inheritance, Multiple alleles, Quantitative inheritance. The Chromosomal Basis of Mendelism: Sex Determination, XYsex determining mechanism, XX-XO type of sex determination, Heterosomes, Autosomes, Sexchromosomes, Epigenetics. Variation in Chromosome Number and Structure: Aneuploidy, Monosomy, Nullisomic, Double monosomic, Trisomy (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary and their meiotic behavior). Polyploidy: Autopolyploid, Allopolyploids, Autoallopolyploid, Segmental allopolyploidy, Mitotic non-disjunction, Meiotic non-disjunction. Effect of colchicine, Deletions and Duplications, Translocations and Inversions. Linkage: 7:1:1:7 phenotypic ratio, Absolute linkage, Crossing Over, and Chromosome Mapping
14 Biotechnology and Plant Tissue Culture: Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Biotechnology. Vectors: Cosmid, Plasmid, Lambda phase, YAC, Ti-plasmid. Restriction endonuclease, Bacillus thuringiensis. Hybridoma technology and production of monoclonal antibodies. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): Melting temperature (Tm) of DNA, component of PCR. Explant, Callus, Organogensis, Coconut milk in the embryo culture, Androgenesis and Gynogenesis, Micropropagation, Cybridization, Sexual incompatibility, Ideal homozygosity, Protoplast fusion.
15 Ecology & Environment : Date, Years and Full forms in Ecology. Raunkiaer's life forms, Ecological Succession, Monoclimax theory, polyclimax theory, The facilitation model of succession , population growth curve, Niche. K-populations, specific natality rate, Ecophenes, Ecotype, population dispersion, r and k selection, Carrying capacity. Soil Types and properties, Clay, Loam, Sandy, Gravel; Holard, Chresard, Echard, Capillary water, Hygroscopic water, Gravitational water. Ecosytem Ecology: Ecological pyramid, productivity, trophic level, 10%energy transfer law, food chain, keystone species, energy flow, food webs, biogeochemical cycle, abiotic and biotic components. Species interaction. BOD & COD. Biodiversity: Vulnerable, Rare, Endangered, Red Data Book', Conventional and Non-conventional source, Man and biosphere program, Endemic plant, Alpha diversity, Beta diversity, Gamma diversity, Mega diverse country, Point richness. Pollution: Blue baby' syndrome, Itai Itai disease, photochemical smog, SO2, pollutants and their effect on plants, Acid rain, secondary pollutant, Greenhouse effect, ozone, PAN, Bhopal gas tragedy, sewage purification, ozone layer, Brown air pollution, warming potential, knock-knee syndrome, Eutrophication, soil pollution, Biomagnification, MIC and Chernobyl, water born diseases, Psychrometer, Ringelmann scale, Phenocopies, Ecotypes, Ecotone, stenoeous, Individualistic approach, Organismic approach, Kemp's constant, LC50, Sustainable development, Gaia hypothesis, Ecological Measuring instruments, Ecotoxicology definition & discovery, dose response relationship.
16 Evolution: Weismann: Germplasm theory, Lamarck, Charles Darwin: Origin of species, Natural Selection, Speciation. Synthetic theory.
17 Microbiology: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell, Endosymbiotic evolution, 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacteria: General characters, Size, Shape, Structure of bacterial cell, Cell wall, Gram staining with procedure, flagella, Plasmid. Nutrition in Bacteria. Growth curve. Reproduction in bacteria: Transformation, Transduction, Conjugation. Economic importance: Germ theory of disease, Citrus canker, Bacterial blight of rice,Processing of sugarcane Tabtoxin Riboflavin, Allelophathy, Vinegar, Antibiotics, Chloramphenicol. Polluted water treatment with the help of microbes. Flax/jute stem 'retting', Citrus acid is production, alcohol production, Bioaugumentation. Archea: Thermoacidophiles, Methanogens and Halophiles. General characters, Differentiate characters from Bacteria and Eukarya. Viroid. Virus: Capsomere, Interferon, largest virus, bacteriophage, Disease is caused by Viruses, Twort-d Herelle phenomenon, DNA and RNA viruses, TMV, HIV, retroviruses, Cyanophages. Lytic and Lysogenic cycle, vaccination. Acquired immunity and Innate immunity. Mycoplasma, PPLO, Little leaf of brinjal. Prions.
18 Plant Physiology: Translocation of water, Casparian strip, translocation of sugars, Transpiration, Guttation, Hydathodes, Root pressure, Autoradiography. Micro and Macronutrients: Roles and deficiency. Plasmolysis, Imbibition, pH, Surface tension, Hydrophilic effect, Types of solution: Hypotonic, Hypertonic, Isotonic. Diffusion, Osmosis, Diffusion pressure deficit, Turgor pressure, Osmotic pressure, Water potential, Pressure potential, Matric potential. Respiration: Anaerobic respiration, Fermentation, Glycolysis, Pyruvate oxidation, Kreb's cycle, Electron Transport Chain, Respiratory quotient, Glycoxylate pathway, Embden-Mayor-Pathway, Oligomycin, Substrate level phosphorylation. Calculation of ATP, NADH2 and FADH2 generated. Photosynthesis: Chlorophyll, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Quantosomes, visible spectrum, Phosystems, Light harvesting complexes , Light reaction, Oxygen Evolving Complex, Blackman's Law of limiting factor, Dark reaction (Calvin cycle). Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase- oxygenase, C3, C4 plant, Photorespiration,Crassulacean acid metabolism, Dimethyl urea and DCMU inhibitors of electron transport. Plant Hormones: Structure, functions ans physiological roles of Auxin, Gibberellin, Cytokinin, Ethylene, Abscisic acid. Bakane disease of rice. Phototropism, Photoperiodism, Long day plant only & Short day plant only, Phytochrome, Vernalization. Plant movement: Thigmonasty or Seismonasty. Nitrogen Metabolism: Free living and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Enzymes and organisms involved in Biological nitrogen fixation, Ammonification, Denitrification, Nitrification. Seconadry metabolites: their roles in plants