Absorption and translocation of water
Transpiration and stomatal behaviour
Absorption and uptake of Ions, Donnan’s equilibrium
Role of micronutrients in plant growth
Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation – uptake, transport and translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells, across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates
Respiration (Glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, structure and role of mitochondria, Krebs cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation, Photorespiration, Respiratory quotient, Fermentation, Pasteur effect Factors affecting)
Photosynthesis: - light and dark reaction, Red drop, Emerson effect, Two pigment systems, Mechanism of Hydrogen transfer, Calvin cycle, Enzymes of CO2 reduction, Hatch a slack cycle C4 cycle, CAM Pathway, Factors affecting photosynthesis, Pigments
The enzymes: Nomenclature and classification, structure and composition, Mode of enzyme action, Factors affecting
Nitrogen Metabolism and biosynthesis of proteins, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen cycle, (Physical and biological) Nitrogen assimilation Amino acid, metabolism, Biosynthesis of proteins
Plant hormones - Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological effects and mechanisms of action. Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscissic acid (General account)
Sensory photobiology - Structure, function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; stomatal movement; photoperiodism and biological clocks
Stress physiology – Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water, temperature and salt) stresses. Light stress and Temperature stress- Injury and resistance
Plant movements: Hydrotropism, Geotropism, Phototropism, Thigmotropism
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Ultra structure of the cell and cell organelles along with their functions
Cell wall structure
Tissue and Tissue systems, Complex tissue (Xylem and Phloem)
Root development: lateral roots; root hairs; root-microbe interaction. Leaf – fall, Root – stem transition
Meristems – Shoot and root apices
Normal and Anamalous Secondary growth, Abnormal behavior of normal cambium, Accessory cambium formation and its activity, Abnormal secondary growth in fleshy roots
Types of stele – Stelar growth
Nodal Anatomy – Unilacunar, Trilacunar, Multilacunar
Introduction and general classification of Algae
Criteria for the classification
Thallus organization in Algae
Economic importance of Algae
General characters, structure, Reproduction, pigments, phylogeny, life cycles etc., of main groups in Algae with reference to Genera Given: (a) Cyanophyceae (Nostoc, Scytonema, Oscillatoria). (b) Chlorophyceae (Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Cladeopora, Oedogonium, Coleochaete, Chara). (c) Bacillariaphyceae – General Account. (d) Xanthophyceae – Vautheria] (e) Phaeophyceae (Ectocarpus, Laminaria) (f) Rhedophyceae (Polysiphonia, Gracillaria)
General Characters of fungi. Occurrence and thallus structure of fungi. Nutritional aspects of Fungi (Saprophytism, parasitism, Symbiosis). Modes of reproduction (Sexual and Asexual). Life cycle in fungi. Criteria for classification of fungi. Classificatory systems
General characters, morphology, reproduction, phylogeny, affinities etc., of the following : main groups with special reference to Genera given below: a) Mytomycetes (stemonites). b) Plasmodiophoromycetes (Plasmodiphora). c) Mastigormycotina (Saprolegnia, Phytopthera). d) Zygomycotina (Mucor). e) Ascomycotina (Taphnina Eurotium, Erysiphe, Pleospora Neuropora). f) Basidiomycotina (Puccinia, Agaricus). g) Deuteromycotina (Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Phoma). 3. Economic importance of Fungi.
General characters of Bryophyta
Sporophyte evolution in Bryophytes
Classification of Bryophytes
General account of the following main groups. a) Hepaticopsida, (b) Anthoceratopsida, (c) Bryopsida
Structure, reproduction and systematics of the following genera: a) Marchantia, (b) Anthoceros, (c) Sphagmum (d) Funaria.
General characters of pteridophytes
Classification of pteridophytes
General characters of the following main groups: a) Psilopsida; b) Lycopsida; c) Sphenopsida (Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiates)
Morphology, anatomy, reproduction and affinities of the following genera: a) Psilotum; b) Lycopodium; c) Selaginella; d) Ophioglostum; e) Marsilea; f) Pteris.
Origin and evolution of land plants
Homospory, Heterospory and Origin of Seed
Telome theory and origin of sporophyte
General account of the following fossil Gymnosperms. a) Pteridosperms; b) Bennittitales; c) Cordaitales; d) Pentoxylales.
Comparative account of morphology, life history, Affinities etc. of the following: a) Cycadophyta – Cycas, Zarnia, b) Coniferophyta – Pinus. c) Ginkgophyta – Gintgo. d) Chlamydospermatophyta: Ephedra, Welwetschia, Gnetum
Classification of Gymnosperms.
Taxonomy of Angiosperms:
Morphology: Types of Leaf and phyllotaxy
Systems of classification: - Hutchinson, Takhtajan, Bessey, Engler and Prantl, Bentham and Hooker
Principles of taxonomy:- Criteria of classification, categories of classification, Diversity of Phyletic concepts
International code of Botanical nomenclature, principles, Typification, Citation and authority
Recent trends in Taxonomy: a) Biosystematics; b) Chemataxonomy; c) Serodiagnostic test and classification, d) Numerical taxonomy
Study of the following families with reference to their characterstics, economic importance, attributes etc., a) Ranuculacease, b) Caryophyllaceae, c) Sterculiaceae, d) Sapotaceae, e) Malvaceae, f) Tiliacee, g) Rubiaceae, h) Compositae, i) Apocynaceae, j) Asclepiadaceae, k) Boraginaceae, l) Convolvulaceae, m) Solanaceae, n) Euphorbiaceae, o) Poaceae.
Concept of primitive flower
Development of anther and ovule
General account of Embryosac and types of Embryo
Structure of microsporangium and male gametophyte
Structure of ovule and its types
Structure of megasporangium and female gametophyte. Monosporic, Bisporic, Tetrasporic (Fritillaria type)
Pollination in Salvia and Calotropis
Endosperm morphology and types, Types and functions of Endosperms
Polyembryony and apomixis
Palynology : Exine ornamentation, concept of palynogram, Application of Palynology in Taxonomy, coal, oil exploration and forensic science, Germination of pollen tube and factors affecting pollen germination
Embryo development in Dicotyledons, Embryo development in Monocotyledons
Cytology, Genetics and Evolution:
Mitosis and Meiosis
Chromosome (Morphology, Structures importance etc.)
Concept of gene, laws of inheritance gene action
Mendelian genetics (Monohybrid, Dihybrid ratio)
Gene interactions (Complementary and Supplementary genes)
Cytoplasmic inheritance: (Mirabilis, male sterility in maize)
Sex determination in plants
Linkage and crossing over
General account of Mutations
Polyploidy and its role in crop improvement
Origin of life
General account and techniques of gene mapping
DNA and RNA Composition and Structure, DNA sequencing, Watson and Crick’s model of DNA, Types of RNA, DNA Replication, Protein Synthesis
Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes – Operon concept
Genetics Structural heterozygote, complex translocations of heterozygote
Mitochondria and chloroplast genome
Ecology and Phytogeography:
Edaphic factors: Composition of soil, origin and development of soil, soil moisture, soil profile, soil erosion and soil conservation
Heterotrophic nutrition in plants
Ecological adaptation in Hydrophytes and Xerophytes
Ecosystem: - Concept, biotic and abiotic components, ecological pyramids, productivity
Geo-chemical cycles. (Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorous cycles)
Plant succession – Xerosere and Hydrosere
Floristic regions of the world
Floristic zones of India.
Bacteria and Viruses:
General Account of viruses. Definition, Characterisation, Chemistry, Ultrasturcture, Composition, replication, Bacteriaphages, transmission of plant viruses, Importance
General account of bacteria – Characteristics, shape, ultrastructure of the cell, nutrition, reproduction, classification and importance.
Disease symptoms produced by Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses
A general account of important diseases of crop plants and their control: a) Late blight of potato f) Leaf spot of rice. b) Smuts (Wheat, Jowar) g) Citrus cancer c) Rust of wheat h) Bacterial blight of paddy. d) Leaf spot of groundnut. i) Angular leaf spot of cotton. e) Paddy blast. j) Mosaic of Tobacco
Control of plant diseases (A general account)
A brief introduction of medicinal plants and their chief constituents: Turmeric, Ephedra, Adhatoda,Terminalia chebula, Tinospora, Isaphgul
Firewood species: a. Prosopis spp. b. Holoptelia integrifolia c. Zizyphus jujuba d. Acacia nilotica. e. Salvadora persica
A concise account of Tobacco
Cultivation, economic importance, systematic position and morphology, climate and uses of the following plants. Rice, Sugarcane, Coffee, Rauwolfia, Wheat, Groundnut, Tea, Pigeon pea, Jowar, Sun flower, Jute, Pearl millet, Cotton, Castor, Cardamom, Maize, Bajra, Tuver, Sesamum, Coir
Botanical name, family, useful part, chemical constituents and uses: Condiments and Spices Cardamom, Chilies Medicinal and Aromatic plants: Lemon grass, Cumin General account of dyes: Henna, Indigofera, Butea
Habit, Habitat, Family, Botanical name, Useful parts and uses of the following Timber species: i.Tectona grandis ii.Dalbergia sissoo iii.Gmelina arborea iv.Madhuca indica v.Azadirachta indica
Habit, Habitat, Family, Botanical name, Useful parts and uses of the following Essential oils – Sandalwood, Eucalyptus, Jasmine, Kewra.
A general account of organic manure.
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-BT crops; Transgenic Organisms; Artificial Seeds from plants, Edible Vaccines from plants
Methods of gene transfer in plants: Micro ejection, electroporation, particle gun and Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer
Secondary plant products with special reference to alkaloids
Cryopreservation and Germplasm storage
Recent Aspects of Botany
Modern techniques a) Electron microscopy, e) Electrophoresis b) Phase contrast microscopy f) The tracer technique c) Spectro photometry g) Auto radiography d) Chromatography h) Sero-diagnostic methods.
Plant tissue culture.
Alternative sources of Energy.
Microorganisms as tools in understanding biological systems.
Environmental pollution (Water, soil, air) health hazards and control.
General Principles, Systems, Natural and Artificial regeneration of Forest, Tree Physiology and Breeding, Silviculture for Mangroves and Shoreline Vegetation, Traditional and recent advances
Recent Advancements and development in the field of research on above topics
DIVERSITY OF ANIMAL FORMS
Principles & methods of taxonomy: Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa, biological nomenclature, classical & quantititative methods of taxonomy.
Outline classification of animals: Important criteria used for classification in each taxon. Classification of animals. Evolutionary relationships among taxa.
Organisms of conservation concern: Rare, endangered species.
The Environment: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic interactions.
Habitat and Niche: Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement.
Population Ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations.
Species Interactions: Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory, pollination, symbiosis.
Community Ecology: Nature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones.
Ecological Succession: Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; concept of climax.
Ecosystem Ecology: Ecosystem structure; ecosystem function; energy flow and mineral cycling (C,N,P); primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (fresh water, marine, eustarine).
Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography; biogeographical zones of India.
Applied Ecology: Environmental pollution; global environmental change; biodiversity: status, monitoring and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity change; biodiversity management approaches.
Conservation Biology: Principles of conservation, major approaches to management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger, Biosphere reserves).
EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOUR
Emergence of evolutionary thoughts: Lamarck; Darwin–concepts of variation, adaptation, struggle, fitness and natural selection; Mendelism; Spontaneity of mutations; The evolutionary synthesis.
Paleontology and Evolutionary History: The evolutionary time scale; Eras, periods and epoch; Major events in the evolutionary time scale; Origins of unicellular and multi cellular organisms; Major groups of animals; Stages in primate evolution including Homo.
Molecular Evolution: Concepts of neutral evolution, molecular divergence and molecular clocks; Molecular tools in phylogeny, classification and identification; Protein and nucleotide sequence analysis; origin of new genes and proteins; Gene duplication and divergence.
The Mechanisms: Population genetics – Populations, Gene pool, Gene frequency; Hardy-Weinberg Law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, migration and random genetic drift; Adaptive radiation; Isolating mechanisms; Speciation; Allopatricity and Sympatricity; Convergent evolution; Sexual selection; Co-evolution.
Brain, Behavior and Evolution: Approaches and methods in study of behavior; Proximate and ultimate causation; Altruism and evolution-Group selection, Kin selection, Reciprocal altruism; Neural basis of learning, memory, cognition, sleep and arousal; Biological clocks; Development of behavior; Social communication; Social dominance; Use of space and territoriality; Mating systems, Parental investment and Reproductive success; Parental care; Aggressive behavior; Habitat selection and optimality in foraging; Migration, orientation and navigation; Domestication and behavioral changes.
SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY - ANIMAL
Blood and circulation - Blood corpuscles, haemopoiesis and formed elements, plasma function, blood volume, blood volume regulation, blood groups, haemoglobin, immunity, haemostasis.
Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure, myogenic heart, specialized tissue, ECG – its principle and significance, cardiac cycle, heart as a pump, blood pressure, neural and chemical regulation of all above.
Respiratory system - Comparison of respiration in different species, anatomical considerations, transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural and chemical regulation of respiration.
Nervous system - Neurons, action potential, gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system, neural control of muscle tone and posture.
Sense organs - Vision, hearing and tactile response.
Excretory system - Comparative physiology of excretion, kidney, urine formation, urine concentration, waste elimination, micturition, regulation of water balance, blood volume, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance.
Digestive system - Digestion, absorption, energy balance, BMR.
Endocrinology and reproduction - Endocrine glands, basic mechanism of hormone action, hormones and diseases; reproductive processes, gametogenesis, ovulation, neuroendocrine regulation
Mendelian principles: Dominance, segregation, independent assortment.
Concept of gene : Allele, multiple alleles, pseudoallele, complementation tests
Extensions of Mendelian principles: Codominance, incomplete dominance, gene interactions, pleiotropy, genomic imprinting, penetrance and expressivity, phenocopy, linkage and crossing over, sex linkage, sex limited and sex influenced characters.
Gene mapping methods: Linkage maps, tetrad analysis, mapping with molecular markers, mapping by using somatic cell hybrids, development of mapping population in plants.
Extra chromosomal inheritance: Inheritance of Mitochondrial and chloroplast genes, maternal inheritance.
Microbial genetics: Methods of genetic transfers – transformation, conjugation, transduction and sexduction or F-duction, mapping genes by interrupted mating, fine structure analysis of genes.
Human genetics: Pedigree analysis, lod score for linkage testing, karyotypes, genetic disorders.
Mutation: Types, causes and detection, mutant types – lethal, conditional, biochemical, loss of function, gain of function, germinal verses somatic mutants, insertional mutagenesis.
Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes: Deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation, ploidy and their genetic implications.
Recombination: Homologous and non-homologous recombination including transposition.
DNA replication, repair and recombination: Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific recombination.
RNA synthesis and processing: transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activator and repressor, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation, and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport.
Protein synthesis and processing: Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, and translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, Posttranslational modification of proteins.
Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level: Regulating the expression of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing.
Basic concepts of development: Potency, commitment, specification, induction, competence, determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate and cell lineages; stem cells; genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants; imprinting; mutants and transgenics in analysis of development
Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development: Production of gametes, cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals; embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants; zygote formation, cleavage, blastula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals; embryogenesis
Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals: Axes and pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibia and chick; organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans, eye lens induction, limb development and regeneration in vertebrates; differentiation of neurons, post embryonic development - regeneration, larval formation, metamorphosis; environmental regulation of normal development; sex determination.
CELL COMMUNICATION AND CELL SIGNALING
Cell signaling Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways
Cellular communication Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation.
Innate and adaptive immune system Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules. generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, inflammation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, vaccines.
Membrane structure and function: Structure of model membrane, lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, membrane pumps, mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport,electrical properties of membranes.
Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles: Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility.
Organization of genes and chromosomes: Operon, unique and repetitive DNA, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons.
Cell division and cell cycle: Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, regulation and control of cell cycle.
MOLECULES AND THEIR INTERACTION RELAVENT TO ZOOLOGY
Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds
Composition, structure and function of biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins.
Stablizing interactions: Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, etc.
Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties).
Bioenergetics, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reaction, group transfer, biological energy transducers.
Enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes.
Conformation of proteins (Primary and secondary structure, domains, motif and folds).
Conformation of nucleic acids (helix (A, B, Z), t-RNA, micro-RNA).
Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids nucleotides and vitamins.
Fermentation and production of small and macro molecules.
Application of immunological principles, vaccines, diagnostics. Tissue and cell culture methods.
Transgenic organisms, molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification.
Bioremediation and phytoremediation
METHODS IN BIOLOGY
Molecular Biology and Recombinant DNA methods: Isolation and purification of RNA, DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation methods. Analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing gels. Molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems. Expression of recombinant proteins using vectors. Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences. Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors. In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knockout in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms. Protein sequencing methods, detection of post translation modification of proteins. DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing. Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression, such as micro array based techniques. Isolation, separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules. RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques.
Histochemical and Immunotechniques: Antibody generation, Detection of molecules using ELISA, RIA, western blot, immunoprecipitation, fluocytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, detection of molecules in living cells, in situ localization by techniques such as FISH and GISH.
Biophysical Method: Molecular analysis using UV/visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism, NMR and ESR spectroscopy Molecular structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR, Molecular analysis using light scattering, different types of mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods.
Radiolabeling techniques: Detection and measurement of different types of radioisotopes normally used in biology, incorporation of radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells, molecular imaging of radioactive material, safety guidelines.
Microscopic techniques: Visulization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy, resolving powers of different microscopes, microscopy of living cells, scanning and transmission microscopes, different fixation and staining techniques for EM, freeze-etch and freeze- fracture methods for EM, image processing methods in microscopy.
Electrophysiological methods: Single neuron recording, patch-clamp recording, ECG, Brain activity recording, lesion and stimulation of brain, pharmacological testing, PET, MRI, fMRI, CAT.
Methods in field biology: Methods of estimating population density of animals, ranging patterns through direct, indirect and remote observations, sampling methods in the study of behavior, habitat characterization: ground and remote sensing methods.
Current Trends and Recent Advancements in Zoology