GATE 2021 syllabus has been released. GATE 2021 syllabus designed for GATE Biotechnology Exam comprises six sections, General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics, General Biotechnology, Recombinant DNA Technology, Plant and Animal Biotechnology, Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology. Candidates by now can check the subject wise Detailed GATE syllabus


Verbal Aptitude

Basic English grammar: tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verb-noun agreement, and other parts of speech

Basic vocabulary: words, idioms, and phrases in context

Reading and comprehension

Narrative sequencing

Quantitative Aptitude

Data interpretation: data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2- and 3-dimensional plots, maps, and tables

Numerical computation and estimation: ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series

Mensuration and geometry

Elementary statistics and probability

Analytical Aptitude

Logic: deduction and induction


Numerical relations and reasoning

Spatial Aptitude

Transformation of shapes: translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions

Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra

Matrices and determinants

Systems of linear equations

Eigen values and Eigen vectors.



continuity and differentiability

Partial derivatives

Maxima and minima

Sequences and series

Test for convergence

Differential Equations

Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs

higher order ODEs with constant coefficients

Cauchy's and Euler's equations

Laplace transforms

Probability and Statistics

Mean, median, mode and standard deviation

Random variables


Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods

Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations

Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson's rule

Single and multistep methods for differential equations.

General Biotechnology


Biomolecules-structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure, action potential and transport processes

Enzymes- classification

kinetics and mechanism of action

Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids) photosynthesis

respiration and electron transport chain



Viruses- structure and classification; Microbial classification and diversity(bacterial, algal and fungal)

Methods in microbiology

Microbial growth and nutrition

Aerobic and anaerobic respiration

Nitrogen fixation

Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interaction


Biomolecules-structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure, action potential and transport processes

Enzymes- classification

kinetics and mechanism of action

Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids) photosynthesis

respiration and electron transport chain


Cell Biology

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure

Cell cycle and cell growth control

Cell-Cell communication

Cell signaling and signal transduction

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes

Mutations and mutagenesis

Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Mendelian inheritance

Gene interaction


Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping

Extra chromosomal inheritance

Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation)

Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements

RNA interference

DNA damage and repair

Chromosomal variation

Molecular basis of genetic diseases

Analytical Techniques

Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal

Centrifugation- high speed and ultra

Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS,NMR

Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC




History of Immunology

Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity


Antibody structure and function

Molecular basis of antibody diversity

Synthesis of antibody and secretion

Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement

Primary and secondary lymphoid organ

B and T cells and macrophages

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

Antigen processing and presentation

Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody

Regulation of immune response

Immune tolerance



Graft versus host reaction.


Major bioinformatics resources and search tools

Sequence and structure databases

Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny)

Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies

Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein- ligand interaction)

Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction and modification enzymes


plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome

mammalian and plant expression vectors

cDNA and genomic DNA library

Gene isolation, cloning and expression

Transposons and gene targeting

DNA labeling

DNA sequencing

Polymerase chain reactions

DNA fingerprinting

Southern and northern blotting

In- situ hybridization


Site-directed mutagenesis

Gene transfer technologies

Gene therapy

Plant and Animal Biotechnology

Totipotency; Regeneration of plants

Plant growth regulators and elicitors

Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimization

Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures

Hairy root culture

transgenic plants

Plant products of industrial importance

Animal cell culture

media composition and growth conditions

Animal cell and tissue preservation

Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture

Kinetics of cell growth

Micro & macro-carrier culture

Hybridoma technology

Stem cell technology

Animal cloning

Transgenic animals

Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design, ideal and non- ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer

Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation

Media formulation and optimization

Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation

Sterilization of air and media

Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors

Instrumentation control and optimization

Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction

Process scale-up, economics and feasibility analysis

Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream

Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale

Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms

Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites

Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics

Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins

Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods

Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes

Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes