MHSET-LS SYLLABUS

The syllabus consist of two papers as follows :
Paper II and Paper III will be of 75 minutes and 2½ hours duration respectively. Paper II willbe of 100 marks and Paper III will be of 200 marks. In Paper III there will be 10 questions eachof Botany, Zoology, Microbiology, Biochemistry and remaining 20 questions are of Genetics, etc.Students have to attempt any 20 questions.

PAPER II

1.Cell Biology

Structure and function of cells and intracellular organelles (of both prokaryotesand eukaryotes)

Mechanism of cell division including (mitosis and meiosis) and celldifferentiation; Cell-cell interation

Malignant growth

lmmune response : Dosage compensationand mechanism of sex determination.

2.Biochemistry

Structure of atoms

molecules and chemical bonds

Principles of physicalchemistry

Thermodynamics

kinetics

dissociation and association constants

Nucleic acidstructure

genetic code

replication

transcription and translation : Structure

function andmetabolism of carbohydrates

lipids and proteins

Enzymes and coenzyme

Respiration andphotosynthesis.

3.Physiology

Response to stress

Active transport across membranes

Plant and animal hormonesNutrition (including vitamins)

Reproduction in plants

microbes

plant and animals

Sensoryresponses in microbes

plant and animals.

4.Genetics

Principles of Mendelian inheritance

chromosome structure and function

GeneStructure and regulation of gene expression

Linkage and genetic mapping

Extra-chromosomalinheritance (episomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts)

Mutation

DNA damage and repair

chromosome aberrations

Transposons

Sex-linked inheritance and genetic disorders

Somaticcell genetics

Genome organisation (in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes).

5.Evolutionary Biology

Origin of life (including aspects of prebiotic environment and molecularevolution)

Concepts of evolution

Theories of organic evolution

Mechanisms of speciation

Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium

genetic polymarphism and selection

Origin and evolutionof economically important microbes

plants and animals.

6.Environmental biology

Concept and dynamics of ecosystem

components

food chain andenergy flow

productivity and biogeochemical cycles

Types of ecosystems

Population ecologyand biological control

Community structure and organisation

Environmental pollution

Sustainable development

Economic importance of microbes

plants and animals.

7.Biodiversity and Taxonomy

Species concept

Biological nomenclature theories of bilogicalclassification

Structural biochemical and molecular systmatics

DNA finger printing

numericaltaxonomy

Biodiveristy

characterization

generation

maintenance and loss

Magnitude anddistribution of biodiversity

economic value

wildlife biology

conservation strategies

cryopreservation.

PAPER III

1.

Principles of Taxonomy as applied to the systamics and Classification of Plant Kingdom

Taxonomic structure

Biosystematics

Plant geography

Floristics.

2.

Patterns of variation in morphology and life history in plants

broad outlines of classificationan evolutionary trends among algae

fungi

bryophytes and pteriophytes

Principles ofpalaeobotany

Economic importance of algae

fungi and lichens.

3.

Comparative anatomy and developmental morphology of gymnosperms and angiosperms

Histochemical and ultrastructural aspects of development

Differentiation and morphogenesis.

4.

Androgenesis and gynogenesis

Breeding systems

Pollination biology

structural and functionalaspects of pollen and pistill

Male sterility

Self and inter-specific incompatibility

Fertilization

Embryo and seed development.

5.Plants and civilization

Centres of origin and gene diversity

Botany

utilization

cultivationand improvement of plants of food

drug

fibre and industrial values

Unexploited plants ofpotential economic value

Plants as a source of renewable energy

Genetic resources and theirconservation.

6.Water Relations

Mineral nutrition

Photosynthesis and photorespiration : Nitrogen

Phosphorous and Sulphur metabolism

Stomatal physiology

Source and sink relationship.

7.

Physiology and biochemistry of seed dormancy and germination

Hormonal regulation ofgrowth and development

Photoregulation : Growth responses

Physiology of flowering

Senescence.

8.Principles of plant breeding

Important conventional methods of breeding self and crosspollinated and vegetatively propagated crops

Non-conventional methods

Polyploidy : Geneticvariability

Plant diseases and defensive mechanism.

9.

Principles of taxonomy as applied to the systematics and classification of the animal kingdom

Classification and interrelationship amongst the major invertebrete phyla

Minor invertebratephyla

functional anatomy of the non-chordates

Larval forms and their evolutionary significance.

10.

Classification and comparative anatomy of protochordates and chordates

Origin

evolutionand distribution of chordate groups : Adaptive radiation.

11.

Histology of mammalian organ systems

nutrition

digestion and absorption

Circulation (openand closed circular, lymphatic systems, blood composition and function)

Muscular contrationand electric organs

Excretion and osmoregulation : Nerve conduction and neurotransmitter

major sense organs and receptors

Homeostatis (neural and hormonal)

Bioluminiscence

Reproduction.

12.Gametogenesis in animals

Molecular events during fertilization

Cleavage patterns and fatemaps

Concepts of determination

competence and induction

totipotency and nuclear transferexperiments

Cell differentiation and differential gene activity

Morphogenetic determinants inegg cytoplasm

Role of maternal contributions in early embryonic development

Geneticregulation of early embryonic development in Drosophila

Homeotic genes.

13.

Feeding

learning

social and sexual behaviour of animals

Parental care

Circadian rhythms

Mimicry

Migration of fishes and birds

Sociobiology

Physiological adaptation at high altitude.

14.

Important human and veterinary parasites (protozoans and helminths)

Life cycle and biologyof Plasmodium

Trypanosoma

Ascaris

Wuchereria

Fasciola

Schistosoma and Leishmania

Molecular

cellular and physiological basis of host-parasite interactions.

15.

Arthropods and vectors of human diseases (mosquitoes, lice, flies, and ticks)

Mode oftransmission of pathogens by vectors

Chemical biological and environmental control ofanthropod vectors

Biology and control of chief insect pests of agricultural importance

Planthost-insect interaction

insect-pest management

useful insects

Silkworm.

16.

The law of DNA constancy and C-value paradox

Numerical and structural changes inchromosomes

Molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutation and their role in evolution

Environment mutagenesis and toxictiy testing

Population genetics.

17.

Structure of pro and eukaryotic cells

Membrane structure and function

Intra cellular compartments

protein sorting

secretory and endocytic pathways

Cytoskeleton

Nucleus

Mitochondria and chloroplasts and their genetic organisation

cell cycle

Structure andorganisation of chromatin

polytene and lamphrush chromosomes

Dosage compensation andsex determination and sex-linked inheritance.

18.

Interactions between environment and biota

Concept of habitat and ecological niches

Limitingfactors

Energy flow

food chain

food web and trophic levels

Ecological pyramids and recycling

Biotic community—concept

structure

dominance

fluctuation and succession

N.P.C. and SCycles in nature.

19.

Ecosystem dynamics and management : Stability and complexity of ecosystems

Speciationand extinction

Environmental impact assessment

Principles of conservation

Conservationstrategies

Sustainable development.

20.

Physico-chemical properties of water

Kinds of aquatic habitats (fresh water and marine)

Distribution of and impact of environmental factors on the aquatic biota

Productivity

mineralcycles and biodegradation in different aquatic ecosystems

Fish and Fisheries of India withrespect to the management of estuarine

coastal water systems and man-made reservoirs

Biology and ecology of reservoirs.

21.

Structure

classification

genetics

reproduction and physiology of bacteria and viruses (ofbacteria, plants and animals)

Mycoplasma protozoa and yeast (a general accounts).

22.

Microbial fermentation

Antibotics

organic acids and vitamins

Microbes in decompositionand recycling processes

Symbiotic and asymbiotic N2 - fixation

Microbiology of water

air

soil and sewage

Microbes as pathological agents in plants

animals and man

General designand applications of a biofermenter

Biofertilizer.

23.Antigen

Structure and functions of different clauses of immunoglobulins

Primary andsecondary immune response

Lymphocytes and accessory cells

Humoral and cell mediatedimmunity

MHC

Mechanism of immune response and generation of immunotogical diversity;Genetic control of immune response

Effector mechanism

Application of immunologicaltechniques.

24.

Enzyme kinetics (negative and positive cooperativity)

Regulation of enzymatic activity

Activesites

Coenzymes

Activators and inhibitors

isoenzymes

allosteric enzymes

Ribozyme andabzyme.

25.

Van der Waal's electrostatic

hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions

Primary structureof proteins and nucleic acids

Conformation of proteins and polypeptides (secondary, tertiary,quanternary and domain structure)

Reverse turns and Ramachandran plot

Structuralpolymorphism of DNA, RNA and three-dimensional structure of tRNA

Structure carbohydrates

polysaccharides

glycoproteins and peptido-glycans

Helix-coil transition

Energy terms inbiopolymer conformational calculation.

26.

Glycolysis and TCA cycle

Glycogen breakdown and synthesis

Gluconeogenesis

interconversionof hexoses and pentoses

Amino acid metabolism

Coordinated control of metabolism

Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines

Oxidation of lipids

Biosynthesis of fatty acids

Triglycerides

Phospholipids

Sterols.

27.

Energy metabolism (concept of free energy)

Thermodynamic principles in biology

Energyrich bonds

Weak interactions

Coupled reactions and oxidative phosphorylations

Group tranfers

Biological energy tranducers

Bioenergetics.

28.

Fine structure of gene

Eukaryotic genome organisation (structure of chromatin, coding andnon-coding sequences, satellite DNA)

DNA damage and repair

DNA replication

amplificationand rearrangements.

29.

Organization of transcriptional units : Mechanism of transcription of prokaryotes and eukaryotes

RNA processing (capping, polyadenylation, splicing, introns and exons)

Ribonucleoproteins

Structure of mRNA

Genetic code and protein synthesis.

30.

Regulation of gene expression in pro-and eukaryotes

Attenuation and antitermination

Operonconcept

DNA methylation

Heterochromatization

Transposition

Regulatory sequences andtranscription factors

Environmental regulation of gene expression.

31.

Biochemistry and molecular biology of cancer

Oncogenes

Chemical carcinogenesis

Geneticand metabolic disorders

Harmonal imbalances

Drug metabolism and detoxification

Geneticload and genetic counselling.

32.

Lysogeny and lytic cycle in bacteriophages

Bacterial transformation

Host cell restriction

Trasduction

Complementation

Molecular recombination

DNA ligases

Topoisomerases

gyrases

Methylases

Nucleases

Restriction endonucleases

Plasmids and bacteriophage basedvectors for cDNA and genomic libraries.

33.

Principles and methods of genetic engineering and Gene targeting

Application in agriculture

healthand industry.

34.

Cell and tissue culture in plants and animals

Primary culture

Cell line

Cell clones

Callus cultures

Somaclonal variation

Micropropogation

Somatic embryogenesis

Haploidy

Protoplast fusion andsomatic hybridization

Cybrids

Gene transfer methods in plants and in animals

Transgenic biology

Allopheny

Artificial seeds

Hybridoma technology.

35.

Structure and organisation of membranes

Glyconjugates and proteins in membrane systems

iontransport/Na/KATPase/Molecular basis of signal transduction in bacteria

plants and animals

Modelmembranes

Liposomes.

36.

Principles and application of light

phase contrast

fluorescence

scanning and transmission electronmicroscopy

Cytophotometry and flow cytometry

fixation and staining.

37.

Principles and applications of gel-filtration

ion-exchange and affinity chromatography

Thin layer andgas chromatography

High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

Electrophoresis andelectrofocussing

Ultracentrifugation (velocity and buoyant density).

38.

Principles and techniques of nucleic acid hybridization and Cot curves

Sequencing of proteins andnucleic acids

Southern

Northern and South-Western blotting techniques

Polymerase chain reaction

Methods for measuring nucleic acid and protein interactions.

39.

Principles of biophysical methods used for analysis of biopolymer structure

X-ray diffraction

fluorescence

UV

ORD/CD Visible

NMR and ESR spectroscopy

Hydrodynamic methods

Atomic absorption and plasma emission spectroscopy.

40.

Principles and applications of tracer techniques in biology

Radiation dosimetry

Radioactiveisotopes and half life of isotopes

Effect of radiation on biological system

Autoradiography;Cerenkov radiation; Liquid scintillation spectroscopy.

41.

Principles and practice of statistical methods in biological research

samples and populations;Basic statistics—average

statistics of dispersion

coefficient of variation

Standard error

Confidence limits

Probability distributions (biomial, poisson and normal); Tests of statisticalsignificance

Simple correlation of regression

Analysis of variance.