The syllabus consist of two papers as follows : GPSC Botany Lecturer Exam Paper is Objective type. Paper I and Paper I will be of 3 hours duration respectively. Paper I will be of 200 marks and Paper II will be of 200 marks. In Exam there will be 150 questions each of Botany Paper I & II. Total marks of the main stage are 900. All Questions carry equal marks. There will be no negative marking

Paper II


Absorption and translocation of water

Transpiration and stomatal behaviour

Absorption and uptake of Ions, Donnan’s equilibrium

Role of micronutrients in plant growth

Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation – uptake, transport and translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells, across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates

Respiration (Glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, structure and role of mitochondria, Krebs cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation, Photorespiration, Respiratory quotient, Fermentation, Pasteur effect Factors affecting)

Photosynthesis: - light and dark reaction, Red drop, Emerson effect, Two pigment systems, Mechanism of Hydrogen transfer, Calvin cycle, Enzymes of CO2 reduction, Hatch a slack cycle C4 cycle, CAM Pathway, Factors affecting photosynthesis, Pigments

The enzymes: Nomenclature and classification, structure and composition, Mode of enzyme action, Factors affecting

Nitrogen Metabolism and biosynthesis of proteins, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen cycle, (Physical and biological) Nitrogen assimilation Amino acid, metabolism, Biosynthesis of proteins

Plant hormones - Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological effects and mechanisms of action. Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscissic acid (General account)

Sensory photobiology - Structure, function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; stomatal movement; photoperiodism and biological clocks

Stress physiology – Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water, temperature and salt) stresses. Light stress and Temperature stress- Injury and resistance

Plant movements: Hydrotropism, Geotropism, Phototropism, Thigmotropism

Anatomy and Cell Biology

Ultra structure of the cell and cell organelles along with their functions

Cell wall structure

Tissue and Tissue systems, Complex tissue (Xylem and Phloem)

Root development: lateral roots; root hairs; root-microbe interaction. Leaf – fall, Root – stem transition

Meristems – Shoot and root apices

Normal and Anamalous Secondary growth, Abnormal behavior of normal cambium, Accessory cambium formation and its activity, Abnormal secondary growth in fleshy roots

Types of stele – Stelar growth

Nodal Anatomy – Unilacunar, Trilacunar, Multilacunar

Algae (Phycology)

Introduction and general classification of Algae

Criteria for the classification

Thallus organization in Algae

Economic importance of Algae

General characters, structure, Reproduction, pigments, phylogeny, life cycles etc., of main groups in Algae with reference to Genera Given: (a) Cyanophyceae (Nostoc, Scytonema, Oscillatoria). (b) Chlorophyceae (Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Cladeopora, Oedogonium, Coleochaete, Chara). (c) Bacillariaphyceae – General Account. (d) Xanthophyceae – Vautheria] (e) Phaeophyceae (Ectocarpus, Laminaria) (f) Rhedophyceae (Polysiphonia, Gracillaria)

Fungi (Mycology):

General Characters of fungi. Occurrence and thallus structure of fungi. Nutritional aspects of Fungi (Saprophytism, parasitism, Symbiosis). Modes of reproduction (Sexual and Asexual). Life cycle in fungi. Criteria for classification of fungi. Classificatory systems

General characters, morphology, reproduction, phylogeny, affinities etc., of the following : main groups with special reference to Genera given below: a) Mytomycetes (stemonites). b) Plasmodiophoromycetes (Plasmodiphora). c) Mastigormycotina (Saprolegnia, Phytopthera). d) Zygomycotina (Mucor). e) Ascomycotina (Taphnina Eurotium, Erysiphe, Pleospora Neuropora). f) Basidiomycotina (Puccinia, Agaricus). g) Deuteromycotina (Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Phoma). 3. Economic importance of Fungi.


General characters of Bryophyta

Sporophyte evolution in Bryophytes

Classification of Bryophytes

General account of the following main groups. a) Hepaticopsida, (b) Anthoceratopsida, (c) Bryopsida

Structure, reproduction and systematics of the following genera: a) Marchantia, (b) Anthoceros, (c) Sphagmum (d) Funaria.


General characters of pteridophytes

Classification of pteridophytes

General characters of the following main groups: a) Psilopsida; b) Lycopsida; c) Sphenopsida (Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiates)

Morphology, anatomy, reproduction and affinities of the following genera: a) Psilotum; b) Lycopodium; c) Selaginella; d) Ophioglostum; e) Marsilea; f) Pteris.


Fossil pteridophytes

Origin and evolution of land plants

Homospory, Heterospory and Origin of Seed

Telome theory and origin of sporophyte

General account of the following fossil Gymnosperms. a) Pteridosperms; b) Bennittitales; c) Cordaitales; d) Pentoxylales.



Comparative account of morphology, life history, Affinities etc. of the following: a) Cycadophyta – Cycas, Zarnia, b) Coniferophyta – Pinus. c) Ginkgophyta – Gintgo. d) Chlamydospermatophyta: Ephedra, Welwetschia, Gnetum

Classification of Gymnosperms.

Taxonomy of Angiosperms:

Morphology: Types of Leaf and phyllotaxy

Systems of classification: - Hutchinson, Takhtajan, Bessey, Engler and Prantl, Bentham and Hooker

Principles of taxonomy:- Criteria of classification, categories of classification, Diversity of Phyletic concepts

International code of Botanical nomenclature, principles, Typification, Citation and authority

Recent trends in Taxonomy: a) Biosystematics; b) Chemataxonomy; c) Serodiagnostic test and classification, d) Numerical taxonomy

Study of the following families with reference to their characterstics, economic importance, attributes etc., a) Ranuculacease, b) Caryophyllaceae, c) Sterculiaceae, d) Sapotaceae, e) Malvaceae, f) Tiliacee, g) Rubiaceae, h) Compositae, i) Apocynaceae, j) Asclepiadaceae, k) Boraginaceae, l) Convolvulaceae, m) Solanaceae, n) Euphorbiaceae, o) Poaceae.


Concept of primitive flower

Development of anther and ovule

General account of Embryosac and types of Embryo

Structure of microsporangium and male gametophyte

Structure of ovule and its types

Structure of megasporangium and female gametophyte. Monosporic, Bisporic, Tetrasporic (Fritillaria type)

Pollination in Salvia and Calotropis


Endosperm morphology and types, Types and functions of Endosperms

Polyembryony and apomixis

Palynology : Exine ornamentation, concept of palynogram, Application of Palynology in Taxonomy, coal, oil exploration and forensic science, Germination of pollen tube and factors affecting pollen germination

Embryo development in Dicotyledons, Embryo development in Monocotyledons


Cytology, Genetics and Evolution:

Mitosis and Meiosis

Chromosome (Morphology, Structures importance etc.)

Concept of gene, laws of inheritance gene action

Mendelian genetics (Monohybrid, Dihybrid ratio)

Gene interactions (Complementary and Supplementary genes)

Cytoplasmic inheritance: (Mirabilis, male sterility in maize)

Sex determination in plants

Genetic code

Linkage and crossing over


General account of Mutations

Polyploidy and its role in crop improvement

Origin of life

General account and techniques of gene mapping

DNA and RNA Composition and Structure, DNA sequencing, Watson and Crick’s model of DNA, Types of RNA, DNA Replication, Protein Synthesis

Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes – Operon concept

Genetics Structural heterozygote, complex translocations of heterozygote

Transposable elements

Mitochondria and chloroplast genome

Ecology and Phytogeography:

Edaphic factors: Composition of soil, origin and development of soil, soil moisture, soil profile, soil erosion and soil conservation

Biological clock

Remote sensing

Heterotrophic nutrition in plants

Ecological adaptation in Hydrophytes and Xerophytes

Ecosystem: - Concept, biotic and abiotic components, ecological pyramids, productivity

Geo-chemical cycles. (Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorous cycles)

Plant succession – Xerosere and Hydrosere

Floristic regions of the world

Floristic zones of India.

Bacteria and Viruses:

General Account of viruses. Definition, Characterisation, Chemistry, Ultrasturcture, Composition, replication, Bacteriaphages, transmission of plant viruses, Importance

General account of bacteria – Characteristics, shape, ultrastructure of the cell, nutrition, reproduction, classification and importance.

Plant Pathology:

Disease symptoms produced by Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses

A general account of important diseases of crop plants and their control: a) Late blight of potato f) Leaf spot of rice. b) Smuts (Wheat, Jowar) g) Citrus cancer c) Rust of wheat h) Bacterial blight of paddy. d) Leaf spot of groundnut. i) Angular leaf spot of cotton. e) Paddy blast. j) Mosaic of Tobacco


Control of plant diseases (A general account)

Economic Botany

A brief introduction of medicinal plants and their chief constituents: Turmeric, Ephedra, Adhatoda,Terminalia chebula, Tinospora, Isaphgul

Firewood species: a. Prosopis spp. b. Holoptelia integrifolia c. Zizyphus jujuba d. Acacia nilotica. e. Salvadora persica

A concise account of Tobacco

Cultivation, economic importance, systematic position and morphology, climate and uses of the following plants. Rice, Sugarcane, Coffee, Rauwolfia, Wheat, Groundnut, Tea, Pigeon pea, Jowar, Sun flower, Jute, Pearl millet, Cotton, Castor, Cardamom, Maize, Bajra, Tuver, Sesamum, Coir

Botanical name, family, useful part, chemical constituents and uses: Condiments and Spices Cardamom, Chilies Medicinal and Aromatic plants: Lemon grass, Cumin General account of dyes: Henna, Indigofera, Butea

Habit, Habitat, Family, Botanical name, Useful parts and uses of the following Timber species: i.Tectona grandis ii.Dalbergia sissoo iii.Gmelina arborea iv.Madhuca indica v.Azadirachta indica

Habit, Habitat, Family, Botanical name, Useful parts and uses of the following Essential oils – Sandalwood, Eucalyptus, Jasmine, Kewra.

A general account of organic manure.

Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-BT crops; Transgenic Organisms; Artificial Seeds from plants, Edible Vaccines from plants

Methods of gene transfer in plants: Micro ejection, electroporation, particle gun and Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer

Secondary plant products with special reference to alkaloids

Cryopreservation and Germplasm storage

Recent Aspects of Botany

Modern techniques a) Electron microscopy, e) Electrophoresis b) Phase contrast microscopy f) The tracer technique c) Spectro photometry g) Auto radiography d) Chromatography h) Sero-diagnostic methods.

Genetic engineering.

Plant tissue culture.

Alternative sources of Energy.

Social forestry.

Microorganisms as tools in understanding biological systems.

Environmental pollution (Water, soil, air) health hazards and control.



General Principles, Systems, Natural and Artificial regeneration of Forest, Tree Physiology and Breeding, Silviculture for Mangroves and Shoreline Vegetation, Traditional and recent advances

Recent Advancements and development in the field of research on above topics